The Original And History Of The Word Clinic Health Essay

Published: 2021-07-13 11:05:07
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Introduction
What is clinic? Clinic is a place that provides health care facility service (as a hospital) it is also called outpatient clinic or ambulatory. Besides that, clinics can divide into 2 categories: privately operated and government (publicly). Some of the private clinic will operate for 24hours. This also will bring a lot of convenient to public when there is an emergency case. Clinic environment have been organized well and work with a group of doctors, nurses, pharmacist and more. Moreover, it is also primarily that care of patient who not feeling well or minor injured such as fever, cough, colds and in need of treatment, check-up or advanced (Wikipedia). Next, people who are going consult doctor for their check-up need some time for nurse and doctor to do preparation.
The original and history of the word clinic in 1626 from L. clinicus, "physician," from Gk. klinike (techne) "(practice) at the sickbed," from klinikos "of thebed," from kline "bed," from suffixed form of PIE base *kli- "lean, slope" (see lean (v.)). An adj. originally inEng., then "sick person," sense of "hospital" clinic1626, is1884, from Ger. Klinik, itself from Fr. clinique. Clinical is from 1780; meaning "coldly detached, like amedical report" is 1928. (Dictionary) From this, we can see that clinic history already started many years ago because of human needed this kind of service to maintain or recovery their body from any sickness by any treatment or check-up.
Moreover, the health government policy history World Health Organization (WHO) started in Mongolia on 7 April 1968. WHO have represent office in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. This allows the enjoyment of the highest gain able criterion of health. This is one of the basic rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition. Health is a physical state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. Technical support, specific advice, international advocacy and more intensive support in dealing with new and emerging health challenges that WHO provides in Malaysia due to change disease pattern, globalization and urbanization. WHO also work closely with our counterparts in the Ministry Of Health, as well as other institutions like professional bodies, universities, civil societies and other government bodies with interest in healthcare. (United nations in Malaysia) From this World Health Organization in Malaysia, I found out that our country is also concern about the importance of having health medical treatment.
In China 2011, the examples from internet source show that owners of those clinics do not have official medical education. There were 659,596 village clinics. The numbers of clinics in China show that how important of clinics for the society. Next, health care in India, China, Russia and Africa is provided to vast village areas by ambulatory health clinics or roadside pharmacy, some of which integrate traditional health practices. In India these traditional clinics provide ayurvedic medicine and unani herbal medical practice. In each of these countries have their own traditional medicine tends to be a hereditary practice.(Wikipedia)
In additional, the interior clinics design is important no matter it is modern or not. It should have a quiet environment with minimum sound pollution because noise can also affect a patient’s feel, emotional, psychological and suitable design is a social need (Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes). It also should equip with as much facilities as possible to bring convenient to the disable. Besides that, thermal comfort in a design also plays a very important role in a clinic. Thermal comfort is about a person wearing normal amount of clothing feels neither too cold nor too warm inside a building to feel comfortable at all time. For example, patient needs to be comfortable with the temperature until their turn for check-up. Next, do not neglect about ventilation too. Good ventilation also plays a very important role in buildings especially clinic with fresh air circulates in the building.
In Malaysia’s government clinic, I would like to conduct research on proper design and the effects of healthcare environment design on medical outcomes. Secondly, reason that I choose government clinic because most of the citizen choose government clinic and also the price is much cheaper than private clinics. Its only requires RM1 per person for all Malaysia citizens. Here I will start my research question about the question about effect of healthcare environment design on medical outcomes.
(737 words)
Literature Review
I would like to start my research on effects of healthcare environmental design on medical outcomes with an article written by Dr.Ulrich himself. Dr Ulrich is an environmental psychologist who conducts scientific research on the influences of healthcare facilities on patient medical outcomes. He holds the position as director of the Centre for Health Systems and Design; which is a multidisciplinary centre housed jointly in the colleges of Architecture and medicine. He conducted research on the effect of window views on recovery from surgery, and the influence of visual surroundings on patients in intensive care units and psychiatric wards. In all, well respected Dr Ulrich developed a Theory of Supportive Design that become influential as a scientifically grounded yet ''designer-friendly'' guide for achieving healthcare facilities(Effect of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes). Moreover, Haya R. Rubin and Amanda J. Owens argue that build environment is not only the factor on medical outcomes. It also depends on interaction with the treatment provided, patients' characteristic, illness factor and finally, features of physical environment.
Ulrich goal is to create and research on new ideas towards improving hospital design and care. Growing internationally of healthcare awareness helps promote improved outcome by certain environmental design strategies whereas different approaches will worsen patient health. Despite of illness and traumatizing hospital experiences, a proper design is created to strengthen their will, calm the patients, fulfil their social needs and improve medical outcomes. He states that new healthcare building and patient-centred care philosophies are stressed to include few of the following needs: reduce cost yet effective, space for growing number of elderly, healthcare demand shifts, mounting demands for patients satisfaction, work demands for staffs and advance medical community that emphasize on psychological health. Dr.Haya Rubin and associates conducted research on design and health relationships at Johns Hopkins Medical School (Rubin et al., 1998). Result with an impressive high percentage of up to 80% of positive links between environmental characteristic and patient health outcomes. One of the characteristic that influence health outcome is noise. Studies show that hospital noise level are often high and produces widespread of annoyance among staffs and patients. (Hilton, 1985; Bayo and Gracia, 1995). Sound intensity level should be kept between 27-58dB for optimum sleeping quality for patient. However, pleasant sounds are proven to make the patient feel better and also psychologically bring them escape from the stressful environment. Window does also affect the outcome of a patient. Studies showed the absence of window will lead to high rates of anxiety and depression (Keep et al., 1980; Parker and Hodge, 1976). However, those with window view are reported less with stress, high in job satisfaction compared to those which lack with windows (Leather et al., 1997). Patient would also like to look out on sunshine rather than cloudy weather (Beauchemin and Hays, 1996, 1998). Investigator at Canadian Hospital studies patient who hospitalize in sunny room for depression had shorter days count in Hospital rather than patient who assigned to a dull room. Elderly people feel more secure walking on carpeted floor compare to vinyl
surface. (Wilmott, 1986) Carpet naturally function as slip resistance and perceived comfort but on the other hand, hospital needs to maintain its cleanliness and vinyl surface are easier to maintain. Other factor that contributes to the positive medical outcome is air quality, music, and eating behaviour. Studies have also shown that pleasant music can often reduce anxiety, stress and cope with pain (Standley, 1986; Menegazzi et at., 1991).
Based on the report conducted by Haya R.Rubin, M.D., Ph.D.; Amanda J.Owens, J.D., and Greta Golden, they state that the pre-Christian Rome, darkness means soothing and contributes to the patients' peace of mind. But Florence Nightingale, a minister in the Crimean War, she state that patients' convalescence would be hastened if hospitals were filled with fresh air, sunlight, calm and quiet views of nature. In the high intensity concern of health nowadays, and the cost of medical care are on the rise, many hospitals start to practice from the environment, which will have a tremendous treatment influence on patients' physical responsiveness. Healthcare facilities can take advantage of their design base on such knowledge to promote more satisfactory outcomes under different circumstances. One of the facilities is air ventilation. Johns Hopkins did a study on the environment of air quality in the hospital, and the report indicates that contaminated air causes infection among patients. Therefore, better design of ventilation system in healthcare facilities may improve patient outcome. Music is also the factor that contributes for a successful surgery. Patients who listen to headset had less pain and low anxiety level, and most of them felt that it was very beneficial and most of them would use it again if offered.(The Center For Health Design)
Suggested quality of life for the patients can be obtained by the surrounding colour, optimum temperature, natural landscapes, pleasant outdoor views, homelike residential type of design and also privacy. All these factors could be tremendous in recovering patients’ outcome. According to Rubin’s report, there is more than 16 billion USD spent in health facilities, yet there is still no sign of improvement of clinic intervention. But with the proposal they come out with, it is potential to yield cost savings and improving health for patients through the design of healthcare environment.
In a nutshell, a proper design in healthcare environmental is very important. To be cost effective yet quality service, the environment is the main point to be focused on. Clinics or hospitals do not really need to be fully advance for patients’ recovery; nature can also help improve patients’ health physically and mentally. It is not easy to find healthcare facilities that combine with a proper environmental design, therefore, this cost saving method should be learned and adapted by all of the clinics and hospitals to ensure patients can have a proper rehabilitation period.
(975 words)

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