The Hypotheses Are Formulated Health Essay

Published: 2021-07-10 23:10:07
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This chapter presents the summary, conclusion, implications, recommendations and limitation of the study.
6.1 SUMMARY
Colo rectal cancer is the sixth most prevalent cancer in India. There are some of the cancers which are preventable. Colo rectal cancer is one among them. As India is moving towards westernization, all our lifestyle, dietary habits etc are being changing towards ill health. Nurses have a pivotal role in prevention of colo rectal cancer by educating the public on risk factors of the disease as by following a healthy habit the disease can be prevented to a large extent.
The purpose of the study was to identify the risk factors of colo rectal cancer
6.1.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of the study was
To find the association between the case and control groups and various factors such as clinical variability, genetic, environmental, dietary and life style factors and to identify significant risk factors of colo rectal cancer among the groups
6.1.2 The hypotheses formulated were
H1: There is significant risk factor for colo rectal cancer among case and control group
The investigator have done an in depth review of literature which included both theoretical and empirical related studies and statistics which provided a strong foundation for the study, including the basis for the conceptual framework and formation of the tool and to select the research methodology, namely case control design which was found to be suitable for the study.
The conceptual framework for the study was based on Betty Neumans theory, which provided a comprehensive framework for identification of risk factor of Colo rectal cancer.
The content validity of the data collection tool was obtained from 2 oncologist and 3 nursing experts in the field of Oncology.
The reliability of the tool was determined by inter-rater method and the feasibility of the study was analyzed by conducting a pilot study at Lifeline Hospital, Chennai for case group and Sir Ivan Stedford hospital, Chennai for control group. The pilot study reports supported the investigator to conduct the main study.
The main study was conducted at Cancer Institute, Adyar for case group and Sir Ivan Stedford hospital, Ambattur, Chennai for control group. Convenient sampling technique was used and the sample size for the study is 100 (case=50 and control=50) who fulfilled the sample selection criteria. Ethical aspects were maintained throughout the study.
Refined tool was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed and interpreted based on the objectives and hypothesis using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that there was significant risk factor of colo rectal cancer among case and control group.
6.1.3 The major findings of the study revealed that
The result of the study helps to identify the risk factors and protective factors of colo rectal cancer.
The risk factors which were identified includes,
duration of diabetes mellitus
past medical history of colo rectal polyps
past medical history of cancer
past history of constipation
genetic history of colo rectal polyps
genetic history of colo rectal cancer
genetic history of cancer
smoking status
forms of smoking
duration of smoking
frequency of smoking
type of alcoholic drinker
obesity
dye exposure
duration of employment in dye industry
intake of grilled meat
intake of fried meat and
intake of preserved food
The protective factors which were identified includes,
breast feeding
exercise
intake of pulses
intake of green leafy vegetables
intake of fruits
intake of fish
intake of dairy products
intake of chicken. and
intake of cooked meat
6.2 CONCLUSION
The present study aims at identifying risk and protective factors of colo rectal cancer and the identified risk factors were duration of diabetes mellitus, past medical history of colo rectal polyps, past medical history of cancer, past history of constipation, genetic history of colo rectal polyps, genetic history of colo rectal cancer, genetic history of cancer, smoking status, forms of smoking, duration of smoking, frequency of smoking, type of alcoholic drinker, obesity, dye exposure, duration of employment in dye industry, intake of grilled meat, intake of fried meat and intake of preserved food.
The protective factors which were identified includes, breast feeding, exercise, intake of pulses, intake of green leafy vegetables, intake of fruits, intake of fish, intake of dairy products, intake of chicken and intake of cooked meat.
The researcher wants to communicate that if risk factors were reduced, then primodial prevention can be done.
6.3 IMPLICATIONS
The investigator has drawn the following implications from the study, which is of vital concern in the field of Nursing practice, Nursing Administration, Nursing Education and Nursing Research.
6.3.1 Nursing Practice
Nurses working in health care unit are in a need of knowing the risk factors of Colo rectal cancer which helps her lot while assessing the patient in the following ways,
To determine the presence of any risk factors of Colorectal cancer within the patient whom she is examining
Utilize the findings of the study to plan regular and periodic health education sessions in hospitals and community health centres regarding risk factors of colorectal cancer.
To educate on elimination of risk factors among those whom it is identified.
To encourage on screening among those who are identified to be at high groups
It also implies on motivating the people to conduct campaign about risk factors of colo rectal cancer, to adapt early life style practices and to modify modifiable risk factors to prevent colo rectal cancer.
Implement mass educational programme on risk factors of Colo rectal cancer awareness using educational package
6.3.2 Nursing Education
The study result can be oriented and issued to the staff, students and public to update their knowledge
In the present nursing curriculum emphasis is placed on theory and care of patients with colorectal cancer. However this curriculum is not optimally stressed on primodial prevention of colo rectal cancer. Therefore the orientation of preventive aspects of colo rectal cancer should be incorporated into the nursing curriculum which includes the risk factors of colo rectal cancer
Nursing curriculum should include all the leading Cancer risk assessment topics so that the student nurses are trained to assess and educate the public on cancers.
Conduct seminars, workshops and conferences for students regarding the recent advancement in risk assessment of colorectal cancer in order to provide to update the information to enhance their knowledge.
Provide adequate clinical exposure for the nursing students to acquire clear and correct information on various issues of colorectal cancer patient.
Encourage the nursing students for effective utilization of research based practice.
6.3.3 Nursing Administration
The nurse administrator within the community or society should:
Design an appropriate strategy for conducting screening program to identify the development of colo rectal cancer
She must communicate with policy making authorities regarding the preventive aspects of colo rectal cancer
Make the staff to carry out periodical colorectal cancer assessment and provide surveillance and present an updated epidemiological picture of colo rectal cancer in the community.
Conduct CNE based on risk assessment of colo rectal cancer.
Incorporate the findings of the study to plan training programme for all health personnel of peripheral health units to prevent colorectal cancer.
Collaborate with governing bodies to create policies and mobilize resources, create coalition with nongovernmental organizations in order to create awareness on colo rectal cancer prevention among public.
Attend training programmes on risk assessment techniques of Colo rectal cancer.
Organize colorectal cancer awareness week.
6.3.4Nursing Research
As a nurse researcher,
Disseminate the findings of the study through conferences, seminars and by publishing in journals and websites.
The findings of the study will help the professional nurses and nursing students to improve their knowledge and assessment techniques.
Promote in depth research on each risk factors and its contributions towards colorectal cancer.
This study implies on utilization of evidence based practice in clinical and community settings in preventive aspects of colo rectal cancer.
6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
The investigator recommends to create an awareness in community on risk factors of colo rectal cancer and encourage the general public to follow healthy life style practices and to eradicate those risk factors of colo rectal cancer, thus reduce the future India’s burden on colo rectal cancer.
Studies can be conducted to identify the role of each single factor towards the causation of colo rectal cancer.
Similar study can be carried out in large population.
Similar studies can be carried out in different areas to assess the risk factors in different geographical areas.
comparative study can be done between rural and urban populations
Prospective type of studies can be done among the variables which have significant association with risk factors of colo rectal cancer.
6.5 LIMITATIONS
The investigator found,
Difficulty in getting samples.
Difficulty in recalling the past events among the samples.
Difficulty in getting permission.
Study is narrowed to limited risk factors.
Due to limitation in time only a small sample were included in the study.

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