The Growth Of Communication Networks Information Technology Essay

Published: 2021-07-23 21:15:06
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1. Introduction
a. The growth of communication networks has decreased the number of isolated populations in the world. The emergence of advanced wired and wireless information technology facilitates global communication by corporations, violent extremist organizations, and individuals. Information is a powerful tool to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp an adversary’s ability to make and share decisions.
b. The instruments of national power (diplomatic, informational, military, and economic) provide leaders with the means and ways of dealing with crises around the world. Employing these means in the information environment requires the ability to securely transmit, receive, store, and process information in near real time. Based on these changes, the countries now characterizes Information Operation as the integrated employment, during military operations, of IRCs in concert with other lines of operation to influence, disrupt, corrupt, or usurp the decision making of adversaries and potential adversaries while protecting our own.
d. Information warfare originates from strategic level and comes down to operational and tactical level. The most significant effect of Information technology on warfare has been to make the concept of "the front" obsolete [1] .
e. The fog of war denies a commander of his most essential tool "information". Information seeks military, national, and individual decision-making process and Information warfare denies, disrupts, or modify this process for the purpose of disabling the enemy to achieve his goals.
2. Aim. To carry out a study of the genesis of Information Operations in present day warfare its potentials as a war winning factor, highlighting the differential that exists in its application in Indo –Pak scenario while taking due account of India’s future designs, thereby suggesting viable recommendations for Pakistan to counter this threat amicably in any future conflict.
3. Scope. The scope of the paper encompasses following aspects:-
a. What is Information Warfare?
b. Genesis of Information Operations and its Potentials.
c. Concept of Information Operations in Contemporary Armies.
d. Indian Army Information Warfare Doctrine.
e. Information Warfare Capabilities of Indian Army.
f. Future Designs of Indian Information warfare.
g. Recommendations for Pakistan Army.
1. What is Information Warfare
a. "The offensive and defensive use of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt, or destroy, an adversary's information, information based processes, information systems, and computer-based networks while protecting one's own. Such actions are designed to achieve advantages over military or business adversaries [2] ."
Dr. Ivan K. Goldberg
b. Thomas Rona, an early proponent of information warfare, offered the following definition: The strategic, operation, and tactical level competitions across the spectrum of peace, crisis, crisis escalation, conflict, war, war termination, and reconstitution/restoration, waged between competitors, adversaries or enemies using information means to achieve their objectives.
2. Sebastian P. Schroeder, David R. Wilton [3] Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences Massey University Auckland, New Zealand defines information operations as following.
a. Information Operations.
Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems, while defending one’s own information and information systems.
b. Defensive Information Operations.
The integration and coordination of policies and procedures, operations, personnel, and technology to protect and defend information and information systems.
c. Offensive Information Operations. The integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilities and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers to archive or promote specific objectives.
3. Libicki Martin C [4] (Scientist at the RAND Corporation) explains that there are seven forms of information warfare-conflicts that involve the protection, manipulation, degradation, and denial of information-can be distinguished:-
a. Command-and-control warfare (which strikes against the enemy's head and neck),
b. Intelligence-based warfare (which consists of the design, protection, and denial of systems that seek sufficient knowledge
to dominate the battle space).
c. Electronic warfare (radio-electronic or cryptographic techniques).
d. Psychological warfare (in which information is used to change the minds of friends, neutrals, and foes).
e. "Hacker" warfare (in which computer systems are attacked).
f. Economic information warfare (blocking information or channeling it to pursue economic dominance).
g. Cyber warfare (a grab bag of futuristic scenarios).
4. As Anne Wells Branscomb has pointed out, "In virtually all societies, control of and access to information became instruments of power, so much so that information came to be bought, sold, and bartered by those who recognized its value. [5] "
5. The arguments made by authors include a definition of the objectives of wars imposed by the socioeconomic structures in the different epochs.
6. Genesis of Information Operations and its Potentials. Offensive information warfare is not a "new" way of attacking one’s adversary. To be sure, some of the current tools and technologies in this area are novel, but the goals of offensive information warfare today bear striking resemblance to those of the "military deception" campaigns of wars past. History provides multiple examples of previous uses of "old-fashioned" offensive information warfare. The period defined most directly in terms of technology has variously been called the Information age, The technology age, The post industrial age, The computer age and the Third wave [6] . In the Revolutionary War, American agents supposedly inserted forged documents into British diplomatic pouches as a way of convincing the British that George Washington’s army was far larger than it actually was. During World War I, the U.S. Army in France executed an important deception operation called the "Belfort Ruse" before a major attack on St. Mihiel. The Western Allies in World War II accomplished what was perhaps one of the largest "information warfare" successes in history when they fabricated the Calais invasion force in 1944, fooling some German leaders (including Hitler) into believing that the invasion of Northwest Europe would come at Calais, which is well to the north of the actual Allied landing sites in Normandy [7] . All of these historical examples involved the types of tactics that a 1990s defense analyst would place in the category of offensive information warfare.
7. In their book War and Anti War Alvin and Heidi Toffler approach the history of warfare using a model of three waves. The following sections briefly discuss these three waves.
a. Agrarian wave.
The agricultural revolution started the first great wave of change in our history. It led to the first of today's known societies. The armies were mainly poorly organized and equipped. In most First Wave armies, the soldiers pay was irregular and low.
b. Industrial wave.
The industrial Revolution changed the way wars were fought. A good example is the American Civil War (1862-63) where the industrialized North defeated the agrarian South.
c. Information wave.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, third wave technologies and ideas began to change the industrial wave societies. Information Warfare introduced battle in three dimensions. Distance, altitude and time were used in the Air Land Battle doctrine. Therefore, Iraq was the first fought Air Land Battle and a first step towards the Information War by using smart weapons and computers (there were more than 3000 computers in the war zone actually linked to computers in the US [8] .
7. POTENTIALS OF INFORMATION OPERATIONS. "In wartime, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies"
Winston Churchill
A nation without an information warfare capability will be a nation without military capability [9] . After the Normandy invasion, the German 7th Army attempted a counterattack to drive the Allied forces from the rather tenuous beachhead that they held. But with the help of "ULTRA's CODE BREAKERS" ability to read the German mail and message traffic, it was precisely known that what they were doing as they began to gather their forces to make this attack, British Second Tactical Air Force and the United States Ninth Tactical Air Force immediately gathered upon these armor formations just as they massed. Disinformation during the war have very decisive role to play in paralyzing the decision making process. The Allies set up a fake Army headquarters and generated false communications transmissions in England. As a result, the Nazis ended up with a significant number of troops placed in the wrong positions. It was played on that expectation in a way that kept Patton associated with his fake headquarters. Even as the Germans began to get higher and higher fidelity intelligence that indicated a real attack at Normandy, their leaders were frozen in indecision and, as a result, tied down considerable forces in France across from the shortest invasion route from England [10] .
The bottom line for value creation in military operations involves the detection, identification, and disposal of the most important targets at any given time. The biggest challenge lies in fleeting targets, those that are mobile and whose value is time sensitive.
8. Concept of Information Operations in Contemporary Armies. Information operations in contemporary armies of the world are:-
a. US Army. Continuous military operations within the military information environment that enable, enhance, and protect the commander's decision cycle and mission execution to achieve an information advantage across the full range of military operations. This definition is successful at capturing the major elements of Army Information Operations which are:-
(1) Army Information Operations involves interacting within the global information environment (GIE), while operating within the military information environment (MIE).
(2) Army Information Operations focuses on the decision cycle, supporting more informed decision making by the friendly commander, while denying the enemy decision maker full use of his decision cycle through the Information Operations attack element [11] .
b. Chinese Army. It is defined as the comprehensive use, with intelligence support, of military deception, operational secrecy, psychological warfare, electronic warfare, and substantive destruction to assault the enemy's whole information system including personnel; and to disrupt the enemy's information flow, in order to impact, weaken, and destroy the enemy’s command and control capability, while keeping one's own command and control capability from being affected by similar enemy actions [12] .
c. NATO . Coordinated actions to create desired effects on the will, understanding, and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries, and other approved parties in support of overall objectives by affecting their information, information-based processes, and systems while exploiting and protecting one’s own.
d. Australian Army. The coordination of information effects to influence the decision making and actions of a target audience and to protect and enhance our decision making and actions in support of national interests.
e. Canadian Army . The Army defines information operations as: -Coordinated actions to create desired effects on the will, understanding, and capability of adversaries, potential adversaries and other approved parties in support of overall objectives by affecting their information, information based processes and systems while exploiting and protecting one’s own [13] .
(1) Indian Army. It states "Actions taken during all forms of conflict, to achieve information superiority over the adversary by adversely affecting his information and information systems while protecting own information and information systems"
(2) Indian Navy. The Indian Navy has formalized the definition of IW as "All actions taken to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy the enemy's information and its function while protecting ourselves against similar actions, and exploiting our own military information function".
(3) Indian Air Force. The Indian Air force IW Doctrine, defines it as the effective use and protection of the Information infrastructure from adversary’s attack and the capability of degrading, corrupting and destroying the information infrastructure of the adversary.
1. Doctrine Statement . Indian Army Information warfare doctrine states "All possible actions will be undertaken to achieve ‘information superiority by adversely affecting the enemy’s information resources, information-based processes, information systems and computer-based networks. Simultaneously protecting own information, information-based processes, information systems and computer-based networks. Correct and timely information if available to commanders at all levels contributes directly to effective Command and Control and helps in reducing the Observe-Orientate-Decide-Act (OODA) Cycle. Information warfare shall play a pivotal role in outcome of any conflict. Adversary is to be defeated by disrupting his observation and surveillance systems, corrupting his orientation and misguiding his perception and thereby inducing him to reach at wrong decisions".
2. Main Aims / Objectives of Indian Army Information Warfare Doctrine. These objectives can be broadly divided as under:-
a. Development and Maintenance of Information Technology. Indian Information warfare doctrine aims and emphasizes on indigenous development and maintenance of Information warfare instruments / equipment. It also aims at developing advanced facilities for Research and Development for supporting and maintaining its information warfare arsenal [14] .
b. Denial of Information. Indian Doctrine emphasis especially on denial of Information and strictly protecting own information as well as friendly forces to enemy’s information gaining capabilities.
c. Affecting Enemy Actions and Will. The doctrine directs that endeavour will be directed in a manner to make an adversary believe as inferior to Indian Forces. It also aims to lower enemy’s morale and will to oppose and counter own actions by offensive employment of Information warfare techniques.
d. Influence Enemy Perceptions. The doctrine aims at altering and influencing adversary’s impressions, perceptions and tailoring the facts as per own will and requirement of operations.
e. Degrade the adversary’s information based capabilities to an extent so as to have complete freedom in the domain.
3. Forms of Information Warfare. These are discussed in succeeding paragraphs.
a. Command and Control Warfare. C2W operations integrate and synchronize the capabilities of EW, military deception, physical destruction, psychological operations and operational security.
b. Intelligence Based Warfare. It is a direct application of battlefield intelligence instantaneously into the battle and targets at creating an asymmetry at the level of transparency or situational awareness in comparison to the enemy.
c.   Electronic Warfare. This consists of electronic support measures (ESM), electronic counter measures (ECM) and electronic counter counter measures (ECCM). The Israelis used EW effectively in the Yom Kippur War and Bekaa Valley [15] .
d. Cyber Warfare. This entails techniques to destroy, degrade exploit or compromise the enemy's computer based systems. Giles Trendle elaborates "Cyber war is information warfare waged over the Internet. In this regard, cyber war has introduced a host of new 'weapons' such as computer viruses, worms, Trojan Horses, which can wreak havoc on Cyber war can be waged by an individual against a system such as government or a multinational corporation with a small weapon such as a laptop computer.
e. Network Centric Warfare (NCW). In contrast to hacking or cracking, NCW focuses on combat power that can be generated from the effective linking or networking of the war fighting machinery/organization. It will provide real time capability of Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Information, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance CSR Systems for our vastly deployed resources.
f. Psychological Warfare (Psy War). There are four categories of Psy War, namely, operations against national will, opposing commanders, troops and cultural conflict. The mass propaganda can be conducted by newspapers, radio, television broadcasts and distribution of leaflets. Psychological War can be strategic, operational and tactical.
g. Economic Information Warfare. In the event of physical attack and the destruction of information system, the economic impact is higher than the virtual destruction of systems [16] . It can be conducted is two forms, i.e. information blockade and information imperialism: -
(1) Information Blockade. An information blockade can be understood as a variant of an economic blockade. Cutting off the access to vital data would cripple the economy of the targeted nations, bringing them down to their knees.
(2) Information Imperialism. Nations struggle with one another to dominate strategic economic industries. Acquiring and maintaining a position in these industries is a reinforcing process. India’s IT industry has a potential to increase its dominance at a regional level and cooperation at a global level with USA, in this field of information dominance.
a. Offensive IW. Offensive IW covers every activity, from physical snapping of communication cable to the use of directed energy weapon to disable an adversary’s information system and create an information vacuum there by preventing him to take coherent, logical and consistent decisions. Offensive IW Targets. These are: -
(1) The Human Element (command and control chain).
(2) Communication channels (links).
(3) Information systems (Nodes).
b. Offensive IW Weapons. These are technology intensive and require
Intensive research and scientific infrastructure. These weapons cover the following range: -
(1) Computer hardware and software based EW systems.
(2) Directed energy weapon systems such as LASER, MASER, and
Microwave emissions.
(3) Use of media for psy war and deception.
c. Levels and Targets of Offensive IW. At the national and strategic
levels, these will aim at: -
(1) Neutralizing and devastating social, economic and political targets without causing physical damage or loss to lives.
(2) Targeting an adversary’s war waging capability by a synchronized and synergized application of all IW weapons.
(3) Psychological war to instill a sense of defeat and futility to continue a hostile demeanor / action.
d. Defensive IW. This relates to the protection and defence of own information systems and associated infrastructure, prevent damage and reduce effects of enemy’s offensive IW. This is possible by preventing unauthorized access or attack and by detecting, surviving and responding to attacks before they can cause damage.
a. Surveillance Capabilities
In last few years Indian military has added all these technologies and now it is working to improve its operational preparedness, synergy and integration in the NCW environment. This is what is called NCW, in which you require a robust command and control systems, swift information gathering mechanism, multi-sensor tracking systems, satellites, battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance systems [17] . This programme includes procurement, production and induction of most modern and latest surveillance equipment which include: -
(1) Satellites. India has launched many Remote Sensing Satellites, latest of these are Cartosat-2B launched on 12 July 2010, Resourcesat-2 launched on 20 April 2011, Megha - Tropiques launched on 12 October 2011 and RISAT-1 was launched on 26 April 2012 which is the most sophisticated satellite until now. Due to these developments Indian Army is capable of tracking our strategic formations in case of war which is a credible advantage.
(2) Air Borne Early Warning System. The IAF currently operates the EL/W-2090 Phalcon AEW&C. India plans to acquire two large aircraft with airborne warning and control systems to add to the three that it already operates. With this capability Indian surveillance capability has been extended at least up to 300 miles inside Pakistan.
(3) Radars/ Ground Based Sensors. Important ones out of them are:-
(a) PSM 33 MK II. It is indigenously developed air surveillance radar with range up to 55 kilometres.
(b) Indra II GRL 610 [18] . This radar system is developed in the country having a low level detection with range up to 90 kilometres.
(c) Indra I GRL 600. It is ground Surveillance radar having range up to 50 kilometres. This is also indigenously developed.
(4) Rasit. It is ground surveillance radar with a range of 23 kilometres against personnel, 40 kilometres against low flying aircrafts and 30 kilometres against helicopters.
(5) Sky Guard. It is Air defence fire control radar inducted in Indian Air defence and Artillery units. Its maximum range is 20 kilometres.
(6) STENOR. This radar can detect troops and vehicles at the range of 40 and 60 Kilometres respectively.
(7) PJT-531 Battlefield surveillance radar. [19] It is capable of detecting crawling men at 500m, moving groups of people at 5 km and a group of vehicles at 10 km.
(8) P-15. It is aircraft detection radar with a maximum range of 140 kilometres at an altitude of 2000 meters. This radar system is extremely mobile and compact.
(9) Unmanned Ground Sensors (UGS). These are sensitive to vibrations, electromagnetic disturbances and sound waves. Their range varies from few meters 8 km.
(10) INDRA 2D Radars. These are low level radar to search and track low flying cruise missiles, helicopters and aircraft for the Indian Army. 
(11) Low Level Light Weight Radar (LLLR) 2D. It is a low level aircraft tracking radar.
b. Remotely Piloted Vehicles
(1) Indigenous RPVs
(a) Nishant. It can fly at 40 to 60 meters per second and is capable of real time battle field surveillance and reconnaissance [20] . It fly at maximum altitude of 1300 feet with endurance up to 5 hours and can achieve the maximum speed of 200 kmph.
(b) Lakshaya. It can provide real time data transmission. It has endurance up to 50 minutes. The RPV can fly up to 9000 metres. It can achieve speed up to 756 kmph.
c. Foreign Procurements
(1) UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Searcher. It has a maximum payload of 63 kg, fuel capacity of 165 kg and range 120-220 km, loiter speed 69km and max takeoff weight 82 kg.
(2) HERON. It provides deep penetration, wide area, real time intelligence to national agencies. India is presently holding 33 Israeli heron UAVs.
(3) UAV Harpy. It is used for Electronic Counter Measures operations. It has total range of 400 km. It will be used to suppress enemy’s anti aircraft system.
d. Aerial Photography. Indian Army banks on Indian Air Force (IAF) for provision of aerial photography. This system is fixed on Jaguar aircraft. Indian Mig–25 is also capable of strategic reconnaissance installed with all kinds of modern surveillance gadgets.
6. Electronic Warfare Capabilities [21] . India has following EW organizations with overlapping functions for employment at strategic and tactical levels.
a. Communication Electronic security agency (CESA).
b. Joint EW board (JEWB).
c. Joint Electromagnetic Compatibility Advisory board (JEMCB).
d. Joint Intelligence Signal board JISB.
e. Signal Intelligence Directorate.
h. Signal Operations.
7. Indian EW Equipment
a. Samyukta. It is a complete EW system, cap of intercepting detecting probing searching and recognizing the enemy’s communication and radar signals employing both ground based and aerial platforms. The system can fix exact location of the target and jamming if it is required. Each system covers an area of 100x100 km.
b. Samvahak. It is corps level commander information decision supporting system which will help to gather and process operation intelligence and logistic information for corps commanders. Induction of sys in IA is not confirmed so far.
c. Sarvadrishta. It is equipment which uses satellite images to locate the enemy and pass on real time information. It will help the armed forces to have accurate and immediate knowledge of the enemy position and vital installments.
d. The Sujav. It can perform a fast spectral search between frequencies of 30 to 1000 MHZ with 4 channel monitoring and jam on multiple frequencies with responsive jamming being used against fixed and frequency hopping sets.
e. Proj Gemini [22] . The project was launched in IOK during 1997-98. The sys is installed at three sited at Bharakh, Dalhuseie and Ramnagar in NC AOR. It is a fully integrated and automated HF / VHF /UHF surveillance system.
f. Tarang (RWR) Radar Warning Receiver. It is a aircraft EW component which is successfully installed in the upgraded IAF MiG-21 fighters, the MiG-27 strike planes and the latest Su-30 MK I fighters.
8. Psychological Warfare Capabilities. This is essentially used to influence the minds of friends, foes and neutrals. ` There are four categories of Psychological War, namely, operations against national will, opposing commanders, troops and cultural conflict. The mass propaganda can be conducted by newspapers, radio, television broadcasts and distribution of leaflets.
India has an edge over Pakistan in the media war because of the advantage it has in space program.
1. Surveillance Capabilities
a. Satellite Programme [23] . ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) has conducted a variety of operations for both Indian and foreign clients. ISRO has planned 58 missions during 2012-17; 33 satellites missions in next two years and 25 launch vehicles missions thereafter, costing US$4 billion. Most important satellites which are in the process of being launched includes:-
(1) INSAT-3D It is a meteorological satellite, planned to be launched in near future. The satellite has many new technology elements like star sensor, micro stepping Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) to reduce the spacecraft disturbances and Bus Management Unit (BMU) for control and telecomm and / telemetry function.
(2) IRNSS-1. It carries a Navigation payload and a C-band ranging transponder. The first satellite of IRNSS constellation is planned to be launched onboard during December 13.
(3) GAST -11. It consists of 16 spot beams covering entire country including Andaman & Nicobar islands. The payload is configured to be operated as a high data throughput satellite, to be realized in orbit in 2013 time frame.
c. Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs). India has also developed Research and Development facility for RPVs.
(1) Dev of Unarmmed Cbt Aerial Veh (UCAV). DRDO will develop the know-how for swept wing stealth design technique demonstrator that will demonstrate tech feasibility, military utility and operational value for a networked system of high performance weapon carrying UCAVS.
(2) Med Alt Long Range Endurance Male (UAV). The UAV is planned to have an endurance of 24 hrs to be able to op at 5000ft, will have autonomous take off landing wheel undercarriage and dingle piston engine.
b. Radars/ Ground Sensors. India has decided to purchase over 1,000 mobile ground sensors at a cost of Rs. 350 crores from Israel. These sensors have been successfully tested and being inducted in the armed forces.
c. Aerial Photography. As per a latest package Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) has been given contract to upgrade the air photo equipment of Indian Air force. India is also negotiating with Russia to finalize details of the country’s participation in development of the Sukhoi T-50, also known by the Russian acronym PAK FA and by India as the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA), having the most sophisticated gadgets for aerial photography.
2. Electronic Warfare (EW) Capabilities. Stressing the need of indigenous development in the field of electronic warfare systems, Dr. Abdul Kalam said
The electronic warfare system is a force multiplier system which needs high level of secrecy for maintaining surprise against adversary actions. In such a situation, it is essential that the system design, architecture and deployment knowledge is generated within the country and maintained as closely guarded information by the services. This is essential to ensuring tactical and strategic advantage for our armed forces during an operation.’’ Some relevant details are as under [24] :-
a. IEWS-MT. Tata Power SED, a private company will develop and supply two integrated electronic warfare systems for mountainous terrain (IEWS-MT) for the Indian Army. The IEWS-MT will include active and passive EW measures.
b. Project SAMYUKTA. This system will ensure dominance over electro- magnetic spectrum which basically means it will jam enemy surveillance signals and voice and radar signals while ensuring its own signals are not jammed by the enemy. It is described as a force multiplier.
3. Psychological Warfare Capabilities. India is using its media resources for waging psychological war against Pakistan. Indian media campaign is likely to boost in future because of having edge in satellite developments and incorporating civil IT technology for military purposes it has made and is likely to make in future.
Likely themes to be used against Pakistan by Indian media to wage media campaign in future includes:-
a. Attacking the two nation theory being an outdated personnal obsession of Mr. Jinnah and screening through movies the separation of two nations as cruel and great tragedy.
b. Nuclear program of Pakistan poses serious threat to the regional and international peace and this facility could be extended to other Muslim countries. Pakistani nuclear weapons can fall in to the hands of religious extremists who are staunchly against the west.
c. Waging media war against cultural values – kulturkampf (Hindi word; means war on culture). Promoting and supporting subnationalism.
d. Pakistani military and ISI have links with extremist organizations and Pakistan as a state promotes terrorism.
e. Pakistan is funding and supporting terrorist organizations in Kashmir and Taliban in Afghanistan, it is also unable to reign in Al Qaeda leadership present in NW of the country.
f. Military and ISI is a state with in a state and Democracy cannot flourish in Pakistan owing to its national psyche, political instability, interference of the Army and adverse law and order sit.
"Know your enemy and know yourself; therefore in a hundred baffles you will never be in peril"
1. Capabilities at National . Pakistan lacks behind in informational warfare as compared to other leading nations of the world and future plans and policies are less comprehensive and do not seem to be meeting their desired objectives. However, the government is taking significant steps to improve upon this vital aspect. Some of the measures being undertaken are:-
The Information Technology & Telecom Division created by the Cabinet Division is an enabling arm of the Government of Pakistan and making efforts to progress in this field through research and acquiring sophisticated technologies [25] .
Information Technology & Telecom Division (IT & T) and Science & Technology Research Division (S & TR) have been set up under Ministry of Science and Technology ( MoST).
‘National Cybre Warfare Development Board’ has been established.
2. Developments in the field of Software. The leading organizations in the field are PASHA (Pakistan Software Houses Association) and PSEB (Pakistan Software Export Board).Present exports made by software houses are very less as compared to other countries however these may rise in coming days with more efforts.
3. Space Programme. While Pakistan’s space program (SPARCO) and capabilities have remained highly secretive and limited, the country has focused on developing missiles and technologies to avoid detection by Indian missile defense system.
Originally manufactured by Boeing and launched on February 1, 1996, Paksat 1 was Pakistan’s first geostationary satellite. Paksat-1R replaced Paksat-1on August 11, 2011. This satellite has a designated life of 15 years, with initial targets to provide broadband internet, digital television, remote and rural telephony [26] .
4. Telecommunications
a. Fiber Optic Network. This project aims to extend the Optic Fiber connectivity to the un-served areas in Pakistan, for meeting the growing requirements of Voice, Data and Video in these areas. Pakistan has deployed cross border Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) system at a cost of Rs 3.7 billion between Pakistan and China for security of information [27] .
b. Pakistan’s International Connectivity. Pakistan’s international connectivity with the world is through undersea cables that are SEA-ME-WE 3&4, IMEWE and TWA-1, country is connected to outside world via two Gateway Exchanges located at Karachi and Islamabad, through hired commercial satellite channels.
c. Internet. According to a report in 2012, there were over 6 million Pakistanis using Face book listing the country as having the 26th largest Face book population.
5. Information Warfare Systems in Armed Forces
a. Existing Systems Pakistan many positive steps in this direction to modernize the state forces and upgrade own capabilities in comparison to the international standards and standards of our adversary.
b. Inter Service Intelligence (ISI) Imagery Centre. ISI and Armed Forces are buying commercial satellite imageries for military uses. The important steps undertaken are:-
(1) Preparing mosaic of given imageries to cover area of interest.
(2) Making of imagery maps by integrating existing maps with the imageries.
c. EW Capabilities
(1) Integrated System. It provides under mentioned capabilities: -
(a) Direction finding, interception, and jamming of Very High Frequency radio communications up to a frontage and depth of 40-45 km.
(c) An Airborne EW system for interception of High Frequency communication over 300 km and jamming and disruption of enemy very high frequency radio.
d. RPVs. Pakistan has also acquired this capability for real time intelligence acquisition. Luna UAV can operate at a maximum altitude of 10,000 and have desired endurance. Pakistan is putting in concerted efforts to develop this technology indigenously and have achieved limited success.
e. C4I System. Army has envisaged a comprehensive C4I system for which is about to be completed in different phases [28] . It includes operational Command and Control system, Intelligence and Surveillance system, electronic warfare, Army fire control system, Air defense and Air space management, Logistics and Combat Service and telecommunication to make the Pakistan army effective in gathering intelligence surveillance and dissemination of information.
f. C4 I2 SR System. A system is being developed to enhance better coordination sharing and dissemination of real time information at inter services level for exercising command and control over strategic weapons.
g. Pakistan Navay. Navy is the first service which has established an Information warfare Directorate at Naval Headquarters. PC 3ORION being on the inventory of Pakistan Navy are capable of providing strategic surveillance.
h. Pakistan Air Force (PAF). PAF has acquired latest Saab AEW&C, a platform which has enhanced its strategic reconnaissance EW and can provide intelligence till deep into enemy territory.
i. Ground Surveillance Radar (GSR). Pakistan Army holds RASIT French radar. It has effective Electronic Counter Measures capability and can be man packed or vehicle mounted.
j. Air Defense / Artillery Radars. These radars provide early warning of any hostile aircraft in the skies, and a few of them integrated with Air Defence weapon system activate the weapons automatically.
k. Aerial Photography. Pakistan Air Force possesses Long Range Oblique Photography System (LORAP) and the resolution of the photograph is good up to 40 kilometer. This system is only a fair weather system and cannot see through camouflage.
l. Satellite Imagery. [29] Pakistan is buying the imageries from foreign satellites. Data of following is available to Pakistan.
(ii) NOAA
(iii) SPOT
1. Strategy at National Level. Pakistan information warfare force when formulated will have to be able to conduct offensive operations against target systems, defend the country‘s information infrastructure from attacks and act as a force multiplier for the national four pillars of the national defense; Navy, Army, Air force intelligence services and strategic forces by providing them valuable information. Following are the suggested steps to be taken at national level:-
a. The Need For a Change in Mind Set. The explosion of IT has set in multiple dimensions. Pakistan remains no exception. To catch up with rest of the world we need a quick change in our mindset from conventional to more dynamic field of IT in all its manifestations.
b. Information Warfare Policy. Barring from rare instances, isolation of military, national public and private information system is impossible today. All elements of national power be employed to develop a viable information warfare capability.
2. Establishment of National Information Technology Institute [30] . The institute may be made responsible for the following.
a. Prepare team of cyber warriors through nation-wide talent hunt.
b. Organize training on IT related aspects for private, public, governments and private outfits.
c. Create research and development facilities through NUST at associated military colleges.
3. National Media Board. Towards this end following is recommended.
a. It should be charged with the responsibility of taking policy decision on use of media in the overall national interest.
b. Think Tanks of the country should be employed to carry out research on themes commensurate with national objectives.
4. Strategy at Army Level. Under mentioned steps should be taken at Army level so as to make the best use out of IT and latest gadgets for acquiring real time information:-
a. Digitization and computerized information system. Geographical information System (GIS) if incorporated in Army operational planning will enable the use of IT for important functions of operations and digitization of maps.
b. Information Warfare Directorate. It should be established at Joint Services level. The mandate given to this directorate should have following tasks:-
(1) Collection of wide range of information from all over the world, sifting analysing and disseminating the information to all concerned and suggest viable recommendations for formulating the national policy.
(2) Carrying out research about latest gadgets held by modern armies and suggesting their induction / utility in own armed forces.
(3) Training of computer hackers.
(4) Development of silicon eating microbes.
(5) Development and launching of computer viruses to attack adversary’s C4I systems.
c. Following directorates are recommended to form part of this newly established directorate.
(1) C4I Directorate.
(2) Psychological Warfare Directorate.
(3) Electronic Warfare Directorate.
(4) Inter Services Public Relations Directorate.
(5) Inter Services Intelligence.
(6) Military Intelligence Directorate.
d. Information Warfare Brigade. This Brigade may be organized as following:-
(1) Headquarters. Should be organized on the lines of an operational brigade with a brigadier and necessary staff.
(2) Psychological Operations Battalion. This Battalion may be tasked to analyze and assess political, social, informational, economic, cultural and religious aspects in the operational environment and help restore and maintain public order.
(3) Deception Battalion. Already existing company may be upgraded to a battalion with increase in strength, equipment and resources.
e. Information operations. Plan for conduct of information operation at all levels (starting from division) should from part of operational plans.
f. Information Operations Training. Planning and conduct of information operations should be incorporated in the overall training system, especially during exercises and war games at division and above level and especially during integrated exercises at formation level.
g. Signal Combat Support Units. Capabilities of Signal Combat Support Units should be enhanced.
i. Defense and Private Sectors Collaboration. Defence sector is collaborating with the private sector, which has better expertise in IT implementation. Although, cooperation goes on however, the potential of private sector remains to be exploited to the maximum.
5. Information Warfare Doctrine for Army. It is a dire need of time to formulate an information warfare doctrine for Pakistan Army. The first step is development of operational concepts falling into two broad categories. The first, involves development of specific battlefield operational concepts that integrates surveillance and reconnaissance activities, intelligence assessment, command and control measures, and mission preparation and execution activities to accomplish a critical operational task. The second involves the development of new organizational arrangements that will seek to absorb new technologies and redefine how Pakistan Army will conduct successful operations across the conflict spectrum. As new operational concepts and advanced technologies are proven, they will lead to innovative changes to the organization and employment of forces.
6. Security of Communication Systems. Security of our communication systems should be ensured at all cost. Following are few of the recommendations in this regard:-
a. Security of Communication systems. To safe guard against breaches of security and enemy Electronic Warfare efforts all HF/VHF radio sets should essentially have frequency hopping. In this regard modern equipment may be procured with long term indigenous production agreements.
b. Data Communication [31] . A comprehensive security plan for data communication be devised and implemented at army level. The plan must encompass the following aspects:-
(1) Denial of access to intruders.
(2) Detection of cyber attack and eradication of viruses.
(3) Recovering the damaged data and provision of alternative operation.
7. Infrastructure and Hard Ware Development. Development and progress in following spheres is recommended at priority:-
a. Satellites. Launching of our own satellites will accrue following advantages for us:-
(1) Our existing communication systems will become more effective and complete country will be covered with communication umbrella.
(2) This capability shall give a quantum leap to our media warfare capability. The scope and spread will enable us to counter the existing media blitz of our adversary.
b. Surveillance Devices. Surveillance devices in the form of Radars, Night Vision Devices (NVDs) remotely emplaced sensors, Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPVs) / Unarmed Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are basic tools of modern battlefield. We must develop modern and top of the shelf equipment ingeniously.
8. Indigenization. There is no alternative to indigenization in defence production. We must learn lessons from effects of sanctions on whatever procurements we made in last fifty years. Civil sector should be given greater share in indigenization of defence equipment.
9. Conclusion. It is imperative for Pakistan to acquire both offensive and defensive Information Warfare capabilities. Information warfare is a force multiplier. It gives the initiator a chance to knock down opponent’s command and control channels by manipulating the information. Our adversary has taken lead in acquisition of information warfare potentials and is likely to exploit this advantage in any future conflict in support of its main operations. Advanced information technologies will help our Army conduct rapid, decisive operations. The force will be protected by advanced but easy-to-use sensors, processors, and war fighting systems to ensure freedom of strategic and operational manoeuvre. A distribution-based logistics system will take maximum advantage of Information Technology breakthroughs, substituting velocity of logistics for mass. This information dominance allows a shift in focus from merely concentrating forces for attrition warfare to obtaining desired effects from dispersed, synergistic forces at a critical place and time to achieve a tactical or strategic objective.

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