The Difference Between Gender And Leadership Styles Management Essay

Published: 2021-08-07 08:00:06
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CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
Nowadays, due to the globalization and economic changes and social conditions the role and self-perception of women in industrial countries is dramatically changing and the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specially the one advanced by "role congruity theory of prejudice towards female leaders", which appeals to the fact that women get unfavorable evaluations if they adopt male-stereotypical leadership styles. In this chapter the relation between leadership styles and gender are the most important topic of research in order we can investigate whether the women in managerial positions can be explained on the basis of the fact that they use less effective leadership styles than men.
Autocratic leadership styles also known as authoritarian leadership is a leadership style characterized by individual control all the decisions and little input from group members. Generally, the autocratic leaders typically make decisions based on their own ideas and the employee must follow the decision pass down by the leader.
Democratic leadership styles also known as the participative leadership in which the group members can share or voice up their ideas in the decision-making process to come out more creative solutions to problems. Group members also feel more involved and committed to work and making them care about the end results. Under the democratic leadership styles it leads to high productivity among group members.
Laissez-faire leadership styles also known as the delegate leadership in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Under the laissez- faire styles, generally that leads to the lowest productivity among group members.
1.2 Problem statement
As organizations are moving towards flattening their structures, eliminating many middle- management levels and positions, the need for more flexible leadership styles, in organizations at all levels, becomes evident.
As mentioned before, "role congruity theory of prejudice towards female leaders" which appeals to the fact that women get unfavorable evaluations if they adopt male-stereotypical leadership styles. And this lead to the number of women in leadership positions low compared to the number of men. The few women that do participate in top management positions use their own styles, which they have learned from experienced women and these styles differ from the ones successful men use. Therefore, it is questionable whether the existing, effective styles of leadership used by men not suitable for women, and whether certain effective styles of leadership may be more suitable for women at all levels.
On the basis of the above mentioned problem statement, the following research questions can be formulated.
Which effective leadership styles are more suitable for men and women, based on their most common characteristics?
How do leadership styles, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, and locus of control differ in terms of gender, age, language, tenure and qualifications of managers within the organization?
1.3 Purpose and objectives of the study
The main aims of this study to examine the relationship between the relationship between leadership style and gender in Ikea.
Specifically, the study is conducted to fulfill the following objectives:
To investigate the gender of the leadership in Ikea
To investigate the relationship of gender and leadership styles
To identify the amount of leadership in Ikea.
1.4 Significance of the study
This section will provide brief description and understanding on the various significances of the study of leadership positions between man and women.
To students. The proposed study serves the students as their reference or guide in creating their way and more understanding of the leadership style. It will also help students taking business related courses to identify the best way of leadership.
To teachers. The proposed study will help teachers to have a deeper understanding to the said leadership position. By this study they will come up with easier and powerful.
To future researcher. The proposed study will benefits and help the future researcher as their guide. The study can also open in development of this study.
1.5 Definition of terms
In order to understand the terms used in this case study, below are the definition and meanings:
1.5.1 Autocratic leadership styles
Autocratic leadership styles defined as the decision or idea make by individual and everyone must follow the instructions from the leaders.
1.5.2 Democratic leadership styles
Democratic leadership styles defined as the group members can voice up or share their ideas during the decision making process.
1.5.3 Laissez-faire leadership styles
Laissez-faire leadership styles defined as the leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The difference between gender and leadership styles
The different leadership styles between the genders are well documented. Men tend to be more direct and goal-oriented while women tend to be relationship-oriented and seek harmony. However, it is important not to pigeonhole the skills that each gender brings to the table as far as leadership abilities go. In this section will summarize the three journals relate to the difference between gender and leadership styles.
2.1.1 Gender differences and leadership styles in non secular setting
According to Carter (2012), this journal examine the differences in female and male pastors’ personality and leadership style as it relates to pastoral leader effectiveness. Along the research cited indicates, the way that women and men show the way is inconclusive. However, both secular and non secular leadership style identify that the women exhibit more transformational leadership style qualities than men.
Female pastors Openness mean scores were slightly higher than male pastors. Individuals high in Openness are characterized as being more willing to encertain novel ideas and interests and open to new experiences, such as new ideas, emotions, actions, and creative thought. Leaders high in Openness can also be described as intelligent, original, imaginative, and broad interests. Further, these pastors may be viewed as problem solvers and as people who welcome new opportunities. However, these limited findings that females scored significantly higher on three of the transformational leadership scales, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individual consideration. Additionally, women were rated higher than men in idealized influence. Idealized leaders have high moral and ethical values and provide their followers with a sense of mission. Women leaders are more likely than men to encourage participation, to enhance the self-worth of others, and to get followers to trade off their self-interests for the overall good of the organization. Transformational leadership qualities such as attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individual consideration regardless of gender pastoral leaders probably work best during times of church growth, change or crisis.
2.1.2 Women’s access to managerial positions: an experimental study of leadership styles and gender
(Cuadrado, Morales, and Recio, 2008) inspect whether the scarcity of women in managerial positions can be explained on the basis of the fact that they use less effective leadership styles than men, and to investigate whether women use " superior" leadership styles than men styles, which has recently been called the female leadership advantage. Along the research, the main styles on the research focused on the autocratic and democratic, and laissez-faire.
2.1.3 Gender differences in leadership-believing is seeing: implications for managing diversity
(Jonsen and Maznevski, 2010) Nowadays, the women in industrial countries are dramatically changing due to the economic changing and the self-perception. These trends are increasing similarities in the management styles of women and men.
2.2 Conclusion/ Summary
After go through all the three journals, we found that female are more autocratic styles and male are more democratic styles.
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
In this chapter we going to identify the method we used it to describe the research methodology in the study. In this chapter, under the research design, research subject, and research location section will discuss about the way our research and the location of our research and the research instrument will define our data that we collect and the way we collect.
3.1 Research design
To start our research we are going to choose quantitative research. According to Mora (2010) defined quantitative research is collect opinions by asking people in a structured way in order to get reliable statistical results in large population and it benefit the firms to improve their products and services. Surveys are a data collection tool that used it to gather the information or opinion about individuals. Surveys are commonly used in psychology research to collect self-report data from study participants (Cherry, 2009).
In our survey research design it bring some advantage, the data collection we be easier with surveys, which tend to use to read data sources that can be compiled and analyzed as needed for the market research needs and the cost is much cheaper and it save time (Sincero, 2012).
3.2 Research subject
Population defined as the entire pool from which statistical is drawn. The information obtained from the sample allows statistics to develop hypotheses about the larger population (Investopedia, 2010). Our study population contain of employee from IKEA Malaysia Selangor.
A convenient sample of 24 subjects was selected from institution. (Mouton 1996) defines a sample as elements selected with the intention of finding out something about the total population from which they are taken. A convenient sample consists of subjects included in the study because they happen to be in the right place at the right time (Polit & Hungler 1993). The sample included 12 male employees and 12 female employees. Available subjects were entered into the study until a sample size of 24 was reached. Subjects who met the sample criteria were identified by the researcher at IKEA Damansara.
The sample size of 12 male employees and 12 female employees were the total of subjects who were willing to participate in the research and who met the sampling criteria of data collection.
3.3 Research Instrument
In this survey design research, our research instrument is using questionnaire. Questionnaire is a list of a research or survey and guide what questions are to be asked respondents and in what order, sometimes lists the alternative responses that are acceptable (Lake, 2009). In our study, we collect the information through a prepared set of question and distribute personally to the employee in IKEA Malaysia.
Data was collected with the aid of questionnaires to evaluate the employees’ knowledge and views on the differences of leadership style between genders. Questionnaires were decided by ensured a high response rate as the questionnaires were distributed to respondents to complete and were collected personally by the researcher and required less time and energy to administer
Apart from the advantages that have been listed above, questionnaires have their weaknesses. Regard of the question’s validity and accuracy, the subjects might not reflect their true opinions but might answer what they think will please the researcher, and valuable information may be lost as answers are usually brief (Burns & Grove 1993).
There are 30 questionnaires were used to collect the data. There are some questions are required to respond in writing with their own words and provide in more detail. The questionnaires were in English only. The questionnaires consisted of section A and B. Section A aimed at gaining demographic data such as age, gender, department and job position. Section B aimed at determining the knowledge and views of the differences of leadership style between genders. Instruction guidelines were attached to the questionnaires to guide the subjects as to whether to circle or tick the chosen response.
3.4 Research location
Written permission to conduct the research study was obtained from the Headquarter at Damansara, the committee of the Business Department and customer service office and the Assistant Manager of IKEA Damansara. Verbal permission was obtained from the persons in charge of the IKEA Business Department.
3.5 Data analysis
After the data was collected, it was organized and analyzed. The questions were analyzed using the computer software called Microsoft Excel. Frequency tables were drawn and from these, the data was presented in pie diagrams and bar graphs.
CHAPTER 4
RESULT
4.1 Demographic data
The data for this study were obtained from IKEA composed of employee. The sample composition was 14 (47 percent) males and 16 (53 percent) females (Figure 1). Participants ranged in age from 31 through 51 years with the majority of respondents (50 percent) 30 or below (Figure 2). Minority of respondents are (10 percent) 51 or above.
Figure 1 Number of male and female participants in this study
Figure 2 Frequency distribution of age in years of participants in this study
The data for this study were obtained from a IKEA composed of employee. The sample composition was 17 (42 percent) Democratic, 10 (24 percent) Autocratic, 14 (34 percent) Laissez-Faire in Figure 3.
Figure 3 Frequency distribution of Leadership style
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership styles between gender in organization regarding the characteristics, styles, and effectiveness. Among the research questions for this study were Leadership must let subordinate be directed or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve organizational objectives? Leadership must always try to include one or more employees in determining what to do and how to do it and so-on.
The researcher used descriptive research methodology and survey techniques to collect data from selected employees at IKEA Headquarter office. Data collected from the survey respondents represented their perceptions regarding the characteristics, styles, and effectiveness of leadership style of existing at their workplace. A coded stratified random sample was selected from the population of employees at IKEA headquarter office in Section A regarding regarding Autocratic, Democratic or Laissez-faire leadership styles of leadership style existingin the workplace. And description of the sample indicated in Section B regarding the understanding and insight about how they define and view of leadership styles. Although the idea that men and women are from different planets (Gray, 1992, 2008) and that their ways of leading differ innately (Senge, 2008) is rife in popular culture, empirical evidence does not indicate significant gender differences in leadership style.
During the week of March 27, 2013, these selected IKEA's employees were mailed questionnaires, accompanied by a cover letter, self-addressed return envelope. Recipients were requested to complete the questionnaire and to return it to Segi College KL as soon as possible. One week later, a postcard reminder was sent to each recipient of the questionnaire. Over a three weeks period ending April 7, 2013, 30 (40%) surveys were obtained and subsequently analyzed.
5.2 Finding
Of the total surveys analyzed, 47 percent were males, 53 percent were females as shown at Firgure 1. Participants ranged in age from 31 through 51 years with the majority of respondents and 50 percent were 30 years old and below (Figure 2), and only minority of respondents with 10 percent were 51 years old and above.
The survey contained 17 questions that asked IKEA employees to indicate their perceptions regarding the leadership style with the questions provided. Firgure 3 provided data relating to distribution of leadership style according to age and gender. The highest response among IKEA employees was 17 (42%) to Democratic, 10 (24%) to Autocratic, and the smallest response rate was 14 (34%) Laissez-Faire.
5.3 Conclusion
After go through and doing research about the differences gender and leadership styles, In the conclusion section, the researcher obtain the result is to find that why difference gender and the three types of leadership styles such as democratic leadership styles, autocratic leadership styles, and leisure-faire is very important?. Because it able to let researcher to learn what is leadership styles through the survey questionnaire and research. As a result from the questionnaire it will show which leadership styles that the leader has and gender difference.
5.4 Implications/Suggestions
During the researcher doing research and questionnaire the researcher found that there are some issues rise up in the research which is the question that researcher create is too difficult to let the respondents to understand and they might confused about the question asking. In order to avoid the respondents confused about the question, the researcher must using simple language to create question and make it tidy to let the respondents can understand and they more comfortable to answer the question. Besides, it also helps the researcher to collect the result easily.

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