Studies Related To Incidence Of Tobacco Use Health Essay

Published: 2021-07-09 13:35:05
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Review of literature entails systematic identification, selection and critical analysis of scholarly publications, unpublished scholarly print materials, audiovisual materials and personal communications to the problem of interest. Hence the investigator intended to review the literature available regarding the ill effects of tobacco using both research and non-research materials.
This chapter deals with a broad view of related literature and studies in the following sections.
2.1 Section A: Studies related to incidence of tobacco use
2.2 Section B: Studies related to ill effects of tobacco
2.3 Section C: Studies related to effectiveness of awareness programme on knowledge and attitude.
2.1 Section A: Studies related to incidence of tobacco use
Doku.D et al (2012), conducted a descriptive study to assess the exposure to tobacco promoting or restraining factors and their association with smoking among 13-18year old adolescents (n=1165). Prevalence rate of tobacco use, smoking and tawa use were 9.1%, 6.6% and 5.7% respectively. Study result revealed that attendance at a school where smoking were allowed, un awareness regarding the ill effects of tobacco use, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were the promoting factors and knowledge about the ill effects of tobacco use and difficulty to quit were found to be the restraining factors.
Chatterjee.T et al (2011), conducted a cross-sectional study, to assess the pattern of tobacco use among the medical (n=515) and non medical (n=349) college students who had selected randomly in Burdan. Overall prevalence of tobacco use was 18.3% and 43.6% respectively. Prevalence of smoking was 14.9% and 40.7% respectively.
Quazi.S.Zahiruddin et al (2011), conducted a cross-sectional study to find the incidence of tobacco use among adolescents (n=240) residing in six tribal villages in India. Incidence of tobacco use (all forms), smoking and smokeless were 54.45%, 23.145 and 53.41% respectively. Incidence rate was high among boys than girls (66.25% and 26%). Most common form of smoking tobacco was beedi and smokeless tobacco was pan masala and gutka. About 69% adolescents from the tribal area exposed to tobacco prevention messages.
Saddicha.S et al (2010), conducted a descriptive study to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among young adult males (n=500) in Ranchi. Using systematic random sampling technique samples were selected and the data was collected by using structured questionnaire and monitoring urinary nicotine level. Results revealed a high prevalence of tobacco use among adult males (55.6%). Most commonly used form of tobacco was cigarette (78%) followed by khaini(20%) and gutkha(2%). Majority (77%) of tobacco users wanted to quit tobacco use.
Muttapppallymyalil et al.,(2010) conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among school children( n=1200) in Kerala. Study results identified that the minimum age of starting tobacco use was 12 years and maximum age was 14 years. 84.6% smokeless tobacco users were using it for 2-3 times a week.
Glenn.B.A et al (2009) conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the rate of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among South East Asians residing in USA. 344 South East Asians were selected using non random sampling method. Around one third (28%) were current users of smokeless tobacco products. Bangladeshis were using smokeless tobacco. Pakistanis (16%) were more using smoking tobacco (16%).
Mathur.C et al (2008), conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the effect of socio-economic status on distribution of tobacco use. Samples were selected randomly from 32 schools in New Delhi and Chennai (n=11,642). They used mixed effect regression to compare the government school students and private school students. Prevalence rate of ever use of any tobacco products among government school children (18.9%) was higher than private students (12.2%). In these two large cities of India, students attending government school were using many forms of tobacco at a higher rate than private school students. The psychological risk profile suggests that government school children were more vulnerable to initiation and use of tobacco.
Gunaseelan.R et al (2007), conducted a qualitative study to understand the perception of people about areca nut use in Sriperambadur. Eleven villages were selected randomly and 15 in depth interviews and 5 focus group discussion were conducted. Study result revealed that the most common form of areca nut use was hans. The main reasons for areca nut use were found to be peer pressure, habituated due to boredom; family problem etc. study result concluded that most of the rural people were not getting enough education regarding areca nut products and its ill effects.
2.2 Section B: Studies related to ill-effects of tobacco use
Bracci PM et al (2012), conducted a case-control study to identify the association between adenocarcinoma in situ(AIS) of lung and smoking among 338 AIS patients and frequency -matched controls from the parent study (cases = 6039, controls = 2073) in California. Risk of AIS was associated with ever smoking (2.7, 95%CI), increased to 20%-30% for each 10 year and decreased with increased year since quitting (p>0.0001).
Sujatha D et al (2012), conducted a descriptive study to assess the incidence of oral premalignant and malignant lesions among tobacco users (n=1028) in Bangalore. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire and clinical examination. High prevalence of oral lesions was found among males (87.9%). Commonest form of tobacco use was smoking (39.2%) and smokeless tobacco (28.1%) and the most common mucosal change was leukoplakia (14%).
Braisch et al (2012), conducted a prospective study to estimate the risk of developing tobacco related subsequent primary cancer (TRSPC) in person with a tobacco related first primary cancer (TRFPC) in Bavaria, Germany. They analyzed TRFPC and TRSPC diagnosed in Bavaria between 2002-2008. They diagnosed 121631 TRFPC in men and 75,886 in women. Among this 2.5% of male and 1.2% of female were developed at least one TRSPC. There was a higher incidence of cancer in mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus and lung among smoker compared to general population.
Stankovic.A et al (2012), conducted a descriptive study to estimate the influence of passive smoking on absence from work due to respiratory problem among women in Serbia. 497 samples were selected from the age group of 40-56 years, who live in an area with identical outdoor air pollution. Results identified congested nose (OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.38-9.01), nasal secretion (OR=3.40, 95%CI=1.38-9.02) and sinusitis (OR=2.88, 95%CI=1.22-6.89) was significantly higher in women who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Passive smoking was found to be a risk factor for respiratory symptom and illness in women that leads to absence from works.
Underwood.JM et al (2012) conducted a descriptive study to assess the relative risk of developing tobacco related malignancy among cervical cancer survivors. Study result identified that the increased risk of subsequent tobacco related malignancies among cervical cancer survivors was greatest in the first five years after the initial diagnosis. Women with cervical cancer had two fold increased risk of subsequent tobacco related malignancies compared with breast and colorectal cancer survivors (SIR=1.1 for both).
Felicia Hodge (2011), conducted a random household survey study the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults,(N = 457). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Study findings confirmed, high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively).
Siatkowska H et al.,(2010), conducted a prevalence study on patients(n= 1026) in a health care centre, Poland to determine the prevalence of smoking and the relation between chronic tobacco smoking, clinical symptoms, lung function test and concurrent diseases. Findings of the study revealed that there was correlation between smoking habit and dyspnoea, wheezing were confirmed and lung function decreases with increasing number of pack per year.
Sridharan.S et al (2010), conducted a prospective study to assess the effect of tobacco smoke from smoker parents on gingival pigmentation and urinary cotinine level in children and young adults in Bangalore. Participants (n=153) were randomly selected and divided into 3 groups based on age and smoking history of parents. Study result revealed that the prevalence of gingival pigmentation was statistically significant (p< 0.05) and urinary cotinine level was highest among the age group of 19-24 years. Study concluded that environmental tobacco smoke is as harmful as first hand smoke.
Eichner JE et al (2010), conducted a prospective observational study to assess the incidence and risk of cardiovascular disease between smokers and nonsmokers in 13 American Indian tribes (n=4549) in USA. Hazardous ratio for non fatal cardiovascular disease for current smoker vs non smoker was significant in women (HR=1.94) and men (HR=1.54). Hazardous ratio for fatal cardiovascular disease among current smokers vs non smokers was significant in women (HR=1.64) but not in men.
Winkelstein .M.L (2010), conducted a descriptive study to determine the effect of passive smoke exposure and the modification they have made in smoking behavior towards smoke exposure in children with asthma in Baltimore, USA. Parents were given questionnaire to evaluate their smoking behavior and modification they made and also urine specimens were collected from children to measure cotinine / creatinine ratio. Children from home with smoker parents had higher mean cotinine /creatinine ratio than from smoke free home (30ng/mg Vs 4ng/mg, p=0.005). This level increased with the number of smokers in the home.
Kaushal.M et al (2010) conducted a case-control study to analyze the role of tobacco exposure in developing breast caner. Data was collected from 117 breast cancer cases and 174 cancer free controls. Multi factor dimensionality reduction analysis was done and it was identified that, betel quid chewing as the single main risk factor and women(4.78) with history of betel quid chewing had 5 times risk of developing breast cancer.
Pavlovska I et al (2009) conducted a case- control study to determine the existence of a casual relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in Macedonia. Study consisted of both investigated group (n=91) and control group (n=91). Study result revealed that cigarette smoking is wide spread among men (68%) with cancer than the control group (40.3%). Smokers (4.55%) were at high risk of developing lung cancer than the non smokers. Study concluded that cessation of smoking appears to be important priority in prevention of lung cancer.
Pilkington PA et al (2007), conducted a descriptive study to determine the association between prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms and exposure to second hand smoke at work place at London. Data was collected from 1560 casino workers in London. Most of the workers (91%) reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms and 84% reported respiratory symptoms. Study identified a strong association between second hand smoke and sensory and respiratory symptoms.
Sur.D et al (2007), conducted a descriptive study to assess the impact of smoking on health with economic implication among 3000 families, who were selected randomly in Kolkata. Study result revealed that there was a significant difference in the disease pattern between smoker’s and non smoker’s family in case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, acute respiratory infection, common cold, hypertension and peptic ulcer(p<0.05). Annual expenditure was 3 fold greater in smoker’s family and there were 8 fold differences in work days lost.
2.3 Section C: Studies related to effectiveness of awareness programme on knowledge and attitude.
Kumar.M.S et al (2011) conducted an experimental study to determine the efficacy of community based group intervention for tobacco cessation in Tamilnadu. Samples (n=400) were selected randomly from the age group of 20-40 years and randomly divided into study and control group. Two sessions of health education 5 weeks apart along with self-help material to study group, but the control group received only the self help material. Study findings revealed that abstinence in the study group (12.5%) was significantly higher than the control group (6%) at 2 months. Study concluded that community based group intervention had the potential to increase the effectiveness of tobacco cessation services for men in rural areas of Tamilnadu.
Surani et al (2011), conducted an experimental study to assess the effectiveness of AntE Tobacco project on baseline knowledge among school children in USA. A structured questionnaire was administered which was followed by an educational cartoon video depicting the ill-effect of tobacco. Immediately, and 6 weeks later they have administered the same questionnaire. Majority of children (82%) answered correctly immediately after the programme and 83% of children answered correctly at the follow up. Study concluded that a multimedia educational program can be used to educate and reinforce anti tobacco messages.
Murukutla.N et al (2011), conducted a household survey to evaluate the effectiveness of a national television and radio mass media campaign against use of smokeless tobacco among the smokeless tobacco users(n=2898) in Newyork. Study results identified that majority of the people (63%) were using only smokeless tobacco and 72% were dual users. Most of the people (>70%) were aware of the campaign and made them to quit tobacco. Study concluded that campaign awareness was effective in improving knowledge and building a negative attitude towards smokeless tobacco.
Sorensen.G et al (2011) conducted a quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of school based life skill tobacco control program for youth of low socio-economic status in Mumbai. Samples (n=1851) were selected from 8th and 9th grade school children by using non-probability method and divided into study and control group. The program consisted of activities focused on building awareness about the hazardous of tobacco, developing life skills and advocacy development. Study finding concluded that 4.1% of 8th grade and 3.6% of 9th grade study group students reported using tobacco at least once in last 30 days, compared to 8.7% of students of control group. Study group were also significantly more knowledgeable about tobacco and related legislation.
Mishra.G.A et al (2009), conducted a pre experimental study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tobacco consumption among the employees (N=104) in a chemical industry in Ratnagiri district. Intervention was given in the form of lectures, focus group discussion and one to one counseling. Study findings concluded that 48.08% of employees were using tobacco and had a poor knowledge regarding ill effects of tobacco use. It was found that peer pressure, pleasure and unawareness were the major causes for initiation of tobacco use.
Burchfield.J et al ( 2007), conducted an experimental study to assess the effectiveness of anti smoking project in rural community school in USA. Purpose of the study was to discourage tobacco use among youth by focusing on tobacco short term ill effects. Results of the study revealed that 80% of students answered correctly. Study concluded that, anti smoking programme can influence to stop using tobacco.
Kaur.J et al (2008), conducted an experimental study to assess the effectiveness of anti tobacco audio visual messages on knowledge and attitude towards tobacco use among 1999 cinema attendees( 784 tobacco users and 1215 non tobacco users) in Delhi. Study result revealed that tobacco users were not able to recollect the anti tobacco messages as like non users (72.1% and 79.1%). Anti tobacco advertisement helped to change the attitude of tobacco users (37%). Study concluded that the anti tobacco messages had been effective in enriching knowledge as well as changing attitude of the people about tobacco use.

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