Quality Gurus And Their Concepts Information Technology Essay

Published: 2021-07-30 04:25:05
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"Integrative philosophy for continuous improvement of quality of products & processes emphasizes on the involvement of everybody in the organization. "It has been said that there will be two kinds of company in the future, companies which have implemented Total Quality and companies which are out of business" are the blind belief of all the industry. [1]
2.1 Definitions of Quality
FITNESS FOR USE (JURAN): As per Juran he felt that the quality is the only effective method to eliminate the waste, reduce rework, to improve the industries objectives and to utilize the source to the fullest.
CONFORMANCE TO REQUIREMENTS (CROSBY): As per Crosby he blindly believes that the quality is the only way to satisfy the customer requirements by giving the best product with conformance.
DEGREE OF EXCELLENCE: Japanese quality experts also recommended quality as degree of excellent since it is reliable and correct with evidence.
PERFORMANCE EXCEEDING EXPECTATIONS (Q = P/E): Quality is also defined as Performance which can exceed the expectation of the customer for getting the desired product to his wish.
PHILOSOPHY AND A SET OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES: In this modern world Quality is a subject which is taken as the Philosophy with set of rules and valuable guidelines for the betterment of the concern.
FOUNDATION OF CONTINUOUSLY IMPROVING ORGANIZATION: Quality is hugely considered as the foundation of the organization relies on customers for continues improvement.
PHILOSOPHY TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENCE: Quality is also viewed as the only philosophy to achieve excellence in equal distribution.
QUALITY MANTRA: If the product is sold to the customer we are only allowed to expect customer back for his next purchase not an sold item for the defective correction or complaints back to the organization.
CUSTOMER-SUPPLIER CHAINS: Quality is a kind of chain between the seller and the buyer to have the business in long term [1,2]
2.2. Quality Gurus and their concepts
Deming’s concept
Deming (1986) said that it is the responsibility of the leader to lead the process of changes and improvement and without top leadership commitment; the goal of bringing changes and continuous improvement cannot come true. Deming gave his 14 points which are the basic principles of TQM implementation.[1]
Juran’s concept.
According to juran (1993) the main target to TQM is customer & employee satisfaction, more profit and low cost. Juran furnished his idea as that main reason of quality problems is management not the workers, and to achieve the quality goals all the functions of organization must work in a synchronized way.
Internal failure cost.
External failure cost
Appraisal cost
Prevention cost[2]
Crosby’s concept.
Crosby focused more on employee training and education as well as reduction of cost of quality. He gave the idea of doing things right first time and zero defects. Crosby that the problems are created by two reasons, lack of knowledge and lack of concentration and commitment towards work.[1]
2.3 Quality Control
As per USA standards quality control refers all types of planning activities implemented within the quality system, which are always expected to provide adequate confidence that an organization will fulfill requirements for quality. QC use techniques and activities to achieve sustain and improve quality of products or service. It integrates these related techniques and activities. Quality control is the method of monitoring the process to attain the exact specifications for the product which is required and demanded by the customer. QC is the process of designing the product before starting the production to confirm the Design of the products or service to meet specs. It’s a Method of inspecting the process to have its production or installation to meet full intent of specs. Review usage to provide information for revision of specs. if needed the aim should be towards quality improvement[3]
2.3.1 Statistical Quality Control (SQC)
Statistical process control (SPC) is a well known concept centered on using tools to enable continuous process improvement. Which are closely linked to the TQM philosophy, SPC helps firms to improve profitability process; statistical Quality control is a part of Total Quality Management (TQM) in which all the experiments are carried out in a statistical manner.SQC is mainly used for three different reasons in quality management they are as follows [4]
Analysis and
Interpretation of data for QC activities
In SQC the two major parts are statistical process control and getting approval for the sample which are mostly attained by monitoring the process with the accurate data’s collection method and by documenting it in systematic way. [3]
2.4 Quality Assurance
American Quality control society views on assurance of quality as the Quality planning tool with systematic activities for a product or service will be fulfilled by the proper assurance method. From the quality control definition, we can say that quality assurance procedures and activities done before the product or service is manufactured and delivered to the customers as a good quality product. This is a proactive approach. By which we can eliminate the complete dissatisfaction of customers and increase the loyalty and image of the concern as they are the best in market to supply quality products to the customer satisfaction. All those planned actions necessary to provide product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality which needs systems and procedures to ensure consistency in methods for producing products. [3]
Quality is introduced in the middle age by the crafts man as the general guidelines and standard to maintain for the betterment of the organization without any falls. Later during the period of industrial revolution quality were taken as the individual department to ensure the final product for the perfection this process is carried out separate department which was later named as quality department which approves the product with 100% confirmation that’s it ready for the dispatch these kind of activities are taken on their workmanship as an improvement by 1924 Mr. Walter Shewhart develops an statistical chart method to collect data and to document it in proper manner for the future reference to add up this idea in late 1930 Mr. Dodge and Mr. Romig developed acceptance sampling method as a substitute for 100 %inspection on the consideration of time factor. As a failure in 1942 there was disapproval for SQC methodology by US mangers by not recognizing the values as a effect there was an association formation for quality in 1946 by American government later in 1950 – William Edwards Deming lectures CEOs in Japan on SQC then in 1954 – Joseph Juran went to Japan for the studies in Management’s responsibility for quality as a development they firmed Quality Control Circle (QCC) formed in Japan quality improvement 1960 by then Quality Movement, and TQM Concepts published by US in 1980’s by Late 1980’s automotive industry emphasize SPC, suppliers required to use Malcolm Balridge Award established (to measure TQM implementation) Taguchi method, Design of Experiments (DOE) to make it in proper standard in 1990’s ISO 9000 series became Global QA std., QS 9000 introduced by automotive industry customer satisfaction ISO 14000 and finally in 2000 New ISO 9000:2000 version, Six Sigma Program introduced information technology into practice and which is even now followed by all the organization for the ISO standards and for TS certificates .[2]
Quality is not a responsibility of any one person or department it’s everyone’s job (operator to CEO) Start from marketing determine customer requirements until product received by satisfied customer Delegated to areas with authority to make quality decisions areas responsible.
Figure Area Responsible for Quality [5]
4.1 Marketing
Marketing is the management process that identifies, anticipates and satisfies customer requirements profitably by evaluating the level of quality customer needs and willing to pay which provides product quality data from marketing information from customer complaints, sales report, and product service product liability by maintaining an proper Information-monitoring and feedback system needed to collect data by this we can have clear view of Marketing which has an vital link in product development[6]
Design Engineering
In the field of design engineering quality translates customer’s requirements into operating characteristics in simple and complex will not be the best design if we increase the complexity, achieving quality will be highly difficult. Simultaneously Design reviews conducted at appropriate times in product development to identity, anticipate problems and take appropriate corrective action for Quality is designed into product before released to manufacturing. [6]
4.3 Procurement
The Quality Management provides data for processing the quotations from the supplier and purchase orders. For example, if there is a small problem in quality of product we are not allowed to place purchase orders for a specific vendor who has to sign the contract which compiles the delivery terms and the quality standard agreements with the quotation. Since delivery terms are indicated for a purchase vendor, the long text is printed out which is commonly called as purchase order. When the goods are ordered, you can request a certificate from the vendor for the respective material, if certificate is not supplied the goods are not allowed to move further without the inspection for product lot. Quality Certificate is must when the purchase decision is made. [7]
Process Design
Quality is Responsible for developing processes and procedures that will produce a quality product like activities include process selection and development, production, planning and support activities sequencing of operations to minimize production difficulties methods study also include design of equipment, inspection devices, and maintenance of product equipment.[7]
Quality is the process for manufacturing quality products meets the required quality at all times. The aim of Quality is to produce the right product at the first time, without any rework. Nowadays all Organizations have a individual department to assure the quality of their products or they may have consultants. Quality is very crucial for the manufacturing industry. Since no manufacturing industry are ready to spend time and money on rework. Every activity in the industry costs money they do not pay for rework. Customers expect more valuable additions for the product when compare to other products in the market at same price or lower price, they will move to that company. Hence to assure good quality to customers, quality plays a significant role in manufacturing process. [6]
Inspection and Test
In Quality Inspection and Testing process the description of the Quality Control activities are performed in accordance to defined quality standard and requirements. It acts as "connecting bridge" between the Quality Assurance and Quality Control. The inspection and test activity will be carried in all phase before after and sustain phase for product realization (i.e.: Manufacturing, Planning, Implementing, Erection), to ensure that the quality level of the product are within standards and requirements. The main goal of inspection for QC is waste of time, money, Manpower. [6]
Packaging and Storage
In Quality assurance to preserve and protect quality of product need specifications during shipment to avoid vibration, shock, environmental conditions and basic guidelines such as how to handle product during loading, unloading, warehousing need specifications for proper storage to minimize deterioration/degradation.[6]
Product Service
Service quality means that it is most sensible to use customer-centered measures, Quality is defined as the difference between the level or nature of service that the customer expected and the level or nature that the customer perceives. This "gap" can be positive or negative, but "services science" tends to focus on detecting, remedying, and preventing negative ones where perceived quality was less than expected. Even after sales service quality are measured. [6]
Quality Assurance
Quality assurance or Quality control as a function within an organization to assists and supports other areas/departments to assure quality determines effectiveness of the system if not appraisal of current quality level determines quality problems/potential by assisting in correction of problem which Improve quality with cooperation from other departments.[6]
4.10 Chief Executive officer (CEO)
In Quality only CEO of a company has ultimate responsibility for quality to have an overall knowledge of quality and involvement in quality improvement activities by creating quality council (QCC and TEI). And who is an authority to participate in meetings developing mission and vision in need of measurement of quality performance monitoring capabilities. [6]
In total quality management the main six techniques to be followed for achieving best results are as follows.
Problem solving
Team leader/facilitator
Statistical tools
Figure. New Philosophy and Attitude towards Quality. [8]
5 .1 QC tools approach
Production environments that utilize quality control methods are dependent upon the management, facility .The tools used are called the 7QC tools these tools are mainly used to strive to have the customer satisfaction by producing the quality product. [9]
5.2 7qc methodology
The following steps are the basic methodology for successive implementation of 7QC tools.
Measuring the Quality:
In this level performance graph and Pareto charts are used
Check past and current state in process:
For this level Check sheet, Control chart, Histogram and Stratification tools are used
Search for root causes of selected problem:
In this phase Cause and Effect diagram tool are used
Finding solution:
By using various tools, techniques, reports.
Applying solution,
Implementing process is carried out in this time zone
Implemented methodology will be monitored and maintained with full attentions for continuous improvement
Maintain the cycle. [9,10]
Figure : Pictorial flow of 7 QC tools [5]
5.2.1 Applications of 7qc tools
These are the seven quality control tools which are applied in mechanical industry to identify the problem and to have continual improvements. [11]
Check Sheet: This tool is a simple and systematic way of collecting data to present information in a graphical format figure 2 illustrates the sample check sheet. [11]
Figure : Check sheet [12]
Pareto diagram: This second tool is extremely used to sort out the factors that have the greatest cumulative effect in problem, and thus everyone can get the clear status of vital few and trivial many factors which influence the problem. By this tool user can have the attention on a vital few factors in a process to fix the problem in short span. These graphs are created by plotting the cumulative frequencies and the relative frequency data in descending order figure 3 illustrate sample pareto diagram. [11]
Figure : Pareto diagram [12]
Cause & effect diagram :The cause and effect diagram are also called as fish bone diagram.This tool was developed by Dr.ISHIKAWA to present the relationship between effects or problem and all the possible causes influencing it directly or in directly figure 4 illustrate sample fish bone diagram.[11]
Figure : Cause and effect diagram [12]
Graph & control charts: The control chart is a running record which has control limits based on inherent process variation measurement are compared with the control limits any point outside the control limit show a the process is in out of control situation actions can be taken during the process and monitor the process continuously control limit are warning signs tell when to take action and when to leave the process alone the main uses of this tool are determination of the degree of the control of the process ,prediction of rejection before non conformance are actually proceed, judgment on job performance, management guidance forecasting of cost in this tool various kinds of graphs are used like, Bar graph ,Pie chart, Line graph, Gantt graph, Radar chart, Band graph, etc. figure 5 illustrate sample graph and control chart [11]
Figure : Control chart [12]
Histogram: This tool gives you a graphical view of collected data, histograms provides the data to evaluate the distribution of data. This is a tool which enables us to understand the population at a glance. It is a diagram of arranged bars (rectangular), with each interval as the base and the height of which is proportional to the frequency of occurrence of measured values belonging to the interval, suggests the probable distribution of the population from which the samples are taken and reveals the amount of variation. It is an important diagnostic tool which gives a birds-eye-view of the variation in a data set. Figure 6 illustrate sample histogram [11]
Figure : Histogram [12]
Stratification: This tool is nothing but the process of dividing the data to narrow down in order to make sure the assured factors, to the grass root level figure 7 illustrate sample stratification diagram.[11]
Figure : Stratification for purity of iron [12]
Scatter diagram: This is a tool that gives the relationship with one variable has on another. A diagram of this type displays the result like the correlation between two sets of data and examines the level of relationship distribution pattern between the data. Scatter diagram helps to study relationship between two sets of data. Two sets of data are plotted in a graph, Graph will show possible relationships, Direct Relationship, Indirect Relationship, No relationship, Used as a prediction tool, Used to investigate unusual observations, Used for stratification of data. Figure 8 illustrate sample scatter diagram. [11]
Figure : Scatter diagram of correlation [12]
In my company I was one of the effective team members of the top team responsible to implement QC tools and methods in the shop floor level. During this activity the main objective was to maximize TEI (Total employee involvement). The management had a Suggestion System‟ where in workers were encouraged and motivated by incentive to think and do improvement .The ideas suggested by them are well analyzed, justified and then implemented by the top management. In the initial days, there was an impression created on the lower work level that the top management is putting pressure on the workmen level, and then the management decided to have participation by giving training in QC tools. Also the concepts of quality control and quality deployment had to be embedded in their mind and soul. The second profitable steps taken by management for workers are incentive and awards based on their ideas and its tangible gain for the concern and a complementary prize for participation. As a line Engineer my duties are to monitor their involvement and encourage them to think for scope of improvement in waste reduction, safety, lean production, quality of the product. The process starts from senior employees in form of groups. Then Quality standards of our competitors and our share in market are shared with them and the limitations, information about the task was briefed then by giving them a simple tasks to get practices in QC tools were allotted in name of suggestion system. Thus considering from my master course and from work experience this topic will be my master thesis and it can give me a better platform for a successful career. [Internal]
This is an organized and technical method to find out the problem and solve in the scope of future from PDCA cycle format
Figure : Deming’s cycle [5]
By these workers will fetch ideas and our panel members will plan and analyze, then implementing, checking in regular interval to check whether it’s useful and is it correct path to attain our project and our company objectives if so or not act according to the result in the same cycle again. This is a practice which I got experience from my work experience in QC tools.In this methodology we have four phases but it all in the circular path which indicates that all r are interlinked with each other process. The four phases are as follows [2,10]
Plan: In this first phase lot of planning activities will be taking place for the scope of target and goal to be achieved.
Do: This is the second phase in this method in which all implementing activities will be carried out.
Check: Third phase is check phase in this part all the planned ideas and implemented techniques will be checked frequently and monitored by collecting data’s.
Act: This is an final phase where the monitored data will be analysised multiple time if there is any deviation and any progress is traced the cycle will be keep on going for the continuous improvements.[4,10]
Deming’s prize is the most famous quality award in the world and was started in 1951.After II world war, Japanese industries were totally demolished and they started their industries again and in order to rebuild their industries on firm bases they invited famous American quality guru Dr. Deming to Japan, and his work there helped Japanese industries to compete in world market in a very short time. In order to commemorate his work the Japanese union of scientist and engineers started a quality award for those industries who out classed other in the field of quality management. There are numbers of award categories like
Deming’s prize for individuals
Deming’s prize for large organizations
Deming’s prize for small organizations
Deming’s prize for company divisions
Deming’s prize for non Japanese oraganizations.
In the very beginning this prize was only for the application of statistical process control methods like DOE, SQC, value stream mapping ,FMEA and so on but with the passage of time it started covering all total quality management field awarded by Union of Japanese Scientist and Engineers. [3]

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