Index Terms— Hybrid Car, Photovoltaic cell, Wind mill.
AS conventional energy sources continue to diminish in availability and feasibility, the world has begun to give serious thought to un-conventional and renewable sources of power like wind, solar, fuel cells and tidal energy. The major disadvantage of each of these sources is that they provide intermittent power depending on generation technique. For example, solar power systems provide no output at night. This paper proposes to develop a hybrid power management unit to tie these dissimilar sources of power together and overcome the disadvantages of each of these sources by
Hybrid power can also be used to prolong and extend the longevity and efficiency of conventional sources. Hybrid power describes the combination of a power producer and the means to store that power in an energy storage medium. In power engineering, the term ’hybrid’ describes a
combined power and energy storage system. It does not mean a "method," such as the popular use of hybrid to mean a vehicle like the Toyota Prius. Examples of power producers used in hybrid power are photovoltaic’s, wind turbines, generators that use fuel. Examples of energy storage media are batteries or hydrogen (for later use in fuel cells). The objective of this paper is to develop a hybrid power delivery system for vehicles that is able to harness alternate sources like wind and solar energy and use it to effectively argument the capabilities and efficiency of the prime mover, or supply electrical energy to the accessory, and non critical systems installed in the vehicle which would otherwise redact this power from the prime mover. This system will help increase the efficiency of the vehicle, reduce fuel consumption and increase the miles for gallon delivered by the vehicle. This paper proposes to hybridize two sources: -Wind energy- Solar energy. We shall use the storage medium, a DC battery.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no green- house gas emissions during operation. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. At the end of 2010, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 197 gig watts (GW). Energy production was 430 TWh, which is about 2.5% of worldwide electricity usage. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic’s (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic’s convert light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. Solar energy is not available at night, making energy storage an important issue in order to provide the continuous availability of energy. Both wind power and solar power are intermittent energy sources, meaning that all available output must be taken when it is available and either stored for when it can be used, or transported, over transmission lines, to where it can be used.
Wind power and solar power tend to be somewhat complementary, as there tends to be
more wind in the winter and more sun in the summer, therefore by efficiently intermixing and hybridization, we can ensure continuous energy supply for domestic, industrial and commercial application.
II. BLOCK DIAGRAM
The hybrid power management unit consists of a windmill, a solar panel, battery, and microcontroller and Hybrid car. The solar panel in our demonstration model is a 12V, 10W unit of Photovoltaic (PV) type. From an operational point of view, a photovoltaic panel may experience large fluctuations in output power due to varying weather conditions, which may result in control problems.
Thus to overcome this we intend to integrate this with a complementary source, like wind power. The windmill is constructed be reverse engineering of a 12V, 300 RPM DC motor.
At full wind velocity, it estimated that it will produce up to
13.2V, which can be easily regulated by a mechanical governor or a zenerized voltage regulator. This unit is capable of producing up to 10W, under fair wind conditions. The windmill and solar panel is connected to the 6V 4AH DC lead acid battery, through a switching relay, which is under control of a microprocessor, which monitors the entire system. Diodes are connected from each power source in series, to ensure unidirectional supply of power.
The microcontroller is a Phillips 8051 variant: P89V51- RD2. The P89V51RB2 is a derivative of the 80C51 microcontrollers with 64 kB ash and 1024B of data RAM. Inverters are often used to convert direct current produced by many renewable energy sources, such as solar panels or small wind turbines, into the alternating current used to power homes and businesses. The technical name for a grid-tie inverter is "grid- interactive inverter". They may also be called synchronous inverters. Grid-interactive inverters typically cannot be used in standalone applications where utility power is not available. Residences and businesses that have a grid-tied electrical system are permitted in many countries to sell their energy to the utility grid. Electricity delivered to the grid can be compensated in several ways. So for example, if during a given month a power system feeds 500 kilowatt-hours into the grid and uses 100 kilowatt-hours from the grid, it would receive compensation for 400 kilowatt-hours. In the US, net metering policies vary by jurisdiction. Another policy is a feed-in tariff, where the producer is paid for every kilowatt hour delivered to the grid by a special tariff based on a contract with Distribution Company or other power authority. In the United States, grid-interactive power systems are covered by specific provisions in the National Electric Code, which also mandates certain requirements for grid-interactive inverters. All these block combined will allow seamless generation and grid return of power allowing distributed supply return and easy management of power sources.
Thus we have developed and described a hybrid power delivery system for vehicles that is able to harness alternate sources like wind and solar energy and use it to effectively argument the capabilities and efficiency of the prime mover, or supply electrical energy to the accessory, and non critical systems installed in the vehicle which would otherwise redact this power from the prime mover.
This system will help increase the efficiency of the vehicle, reduce fuel consumption and increase the miles for gallon delivered by the vehicle.
The applications of this system range from improvement of efficiency of commercial vehicles to extension of efficiency and lowering of running costs of long haul freighters and trucks.