Network Mistakes Can Be Reduction Information Computer Science Essay

Published: 2021-07-21 10:05:08
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Table of Contents
Task 01
Computer Networking
A pc social media is two or more pcs linked together with difficult wired or wi-fi technological innovation (network is an inter relationship pc nodes). When we style a simple program there are some details we should take into consideration.
• Topology
• Architecture
• Protocol
Advantages of Networking
1. Fast communication
2. Sharing of Sources such as data files (data and information)
3. Increased Storage Capacity
4. Centralized Program Management
Disadvantages of Networking
1. Initial Cost
2. Security of Details (Viruses and cyberpunk attacks)
3. System Failures
4. Network mistakes can be reduction information and information
Network Topology
A geometrical structure of a program is known as as topology. There are some conventional topologies.
Bus Topology
Star Topology
Tree Topology
Ring Topology
Mesh Topology
Bus Topology
Network topologies - bus topology
All the clients in the program are linked with only one line. There are no primary nodes.
Easy to Setup
If one node fails it doesn’t affect entire system
Difficult to identify if any break in the bus.
Data transmission is Very slow
2. Ring Topology
In ring topology every node has two others who live nearby (left and right) to do interaction. In this topology, information journeys clockwise or anticlockwise. If any node or wire is not able, it may put down whole program system
Performs better than a ring topology under a large perform.
Less expensive than star topology and uses less cabling.
Doesn't need a server.
Each packet of data must pass through all the computer systems between source and location. This makes it more slowly than ring topology.
If one work area or port goes down, the entire system gets affected.
Network is highly reliant on the cable which joins different elements.
MAU’s and network cards are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards and hubs.
Tree Topology
In tree topology all the nodes are linked with a central system hub or change. Tree is a combination of celebrity and bus. Tree topology is the simplest one. This topology is very helpful to colleges and universities.
It is an expansion of star and bus Topologies, so in networks where these topologies can't be applied individually for factors relevant to scalability, tree topology is the best substitute.
Development of System is possible and simple.
Here, we split the whole network into sections (star networks), which can be quickly maintained and managed.
Mistake recognition and modification is simple.
Each section is offered with devoted point-to-point cabling to the main hub.
If one section is broken, other sections are not impacted.
Because of its primary framework, tree topology, relies on the main bus wire, if it breaks whole system is impaired.
As more and more nodes and sections are included, the servicing becomes difficult.
Scalability of the system relies on the type of cable used.
4. Star Topology
Extended Star Topology Network
In the Star Topology all the nodes linked with a primary system known as Hub/Switch. All the nodes are linked with a Hub or Switch using UTP or STP cords.
As in comparison to Bus topology it gives far much better performance, alerts don’t actually get passed on to all the work stations. A sent signals gets to the designed location after moving through no more than 3-4 devices and 2-3 links. Performance of the network is depends on the potential of main hub.
Simple to link new nodes or gadgets. According to the star topology new nodes can be included quickly without impacting rest of the system. In the same way elements can also be eliminated quickly.
Central management. It helps in monitoring the system.
Failing of one node or link does not impact the rest of system. At the same time it’s simple to identify the failure and diagnose it.
Too much dependency on main system has its own disadvantages. If it is not working properly which means if it is fails entire system goes down.
The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device improve the overall cost of the network.
Performance and as well variety of nodes which can be included in such topology is relied on potential of the central device.
5. Mesh Topology
In Mesh topology every node linked with every other node. These are not common in LAN. These are used in WAN’s. These kinds of networks are self-healing. It performs effectively if node is not able or relationship lost.
Data can be passed from different devices at the same time. This topology can hold up against high traffic.
Even if one of the component is not working properly there is always an substitute existing. So data does not get impacted.
Development and adjustment in topology can be done without interfering with other nodes.
There are great possibilities of redundancy in many of the network connections.
Overall cost of this system is way too great as in comparison to other system topologies.
Set-up and servicing of this topology is very difficult. Even management of the system is tough.
Different types of Network Systems
Network systems are categorized by their range and scope. There are three main network techniques.
1. Local area Network
2. Wide area Network
3. Metropolitan area Network
Types of these factors are different concept than the network topologies.
Local Area Network - LAN
Local Area Network commonly known as LAN. This is some type of personally owned program within only one developing or place (e.g.: Workplace, College) in a few distance area. The LAN program is used to link pcs and work stations in the organization. LAN program normally runs at 10Mbps – 100Mbps rate. But more recent LAN techniques are reinforced up to 10Gbps rate.
With LAN program, all the pcs, photo printers, readers and other components device can share in the network.
Wide Area Network –WAN
Wide area program is selection of Regional community techniques. WAN covers in a huge regional area. The serves are linked by an interaction subnet or just subnet for short. In most WANs the program contains numerous transferring collections each one linking couple of wireless routers.
WANs program is normally used by public sector such as banking techniques, military techniques, etc. This helps up to 2Mbps, 45Mbps and 155Mbps.
Metropolitan Position Network – MAN
Metropolitan Position Network is a program that use in the city or region. MAN techniques are connected with many LANs. This uses great central source collections (e.g.: Roughage visual links). MAN allows high-speed of discussing resources and use to offer a shared relationship to other pc techniques using a link to a WAN.
Network Devices
Networking is linking two or more pcs together via difficult wired or wi-fi. For this objective pc social media needs some type of system to link pcs with one another. These gadgets are known as interaction gadgets. Network gadgets are Routers, Changes, Locations, NICs, Locations, ISDN devices,
Based on the requirements anyone can choose the best program system to home or office.
• Router
Router is a system that performs as a primary factor within the pcs. Routers can be separated as Wireless and Analogue. Every wireless router has a redirecting software. This functions as the Actual Part in the OSI design.
• Hub
Hub is a primary system that pcs and other program gadgets are linked. This comes with 4,6,12 slots or more. When information packages are received to the hub it programming the same to all nodes linked with the hub and intended receiver will pick it up.
• Switch
Switch is like a wireless router. This will map IP details with the MAC IP deal with in the LAN. This will not transmitted information to the all the nodes and delivers only to the actual pc.
• Modem
Modem is used to get the connection with online. Computer transforms analog indication to digital indication. This performs in two methods (modulation and demodulation).
• Network interface Cards (NIC)
This is known as a Network Cards. It is used to link pcs with each other. NIC helps RJ-45 Cable. NIC card placed into development slot in the pc and different NIC helps different rates of speed (10/100 MPPS).
• Wireless Network Card
This is same as difficult wired program card but the difference is it comes as Wi-Fi so can be used for even WIFI.
C:\Users\Achala\Desktop\pci wireless network adapter.jpg
Network Cables
There are two primary methods of linking two pcs together. They are Wired and Wireless. Wireless relationships are Radio Frequency, Wireless Bluetooth, Infra-red, etc. Wired Ways are using coaxial wire, Turned couple cords. UTP and STP.
• Ethernet Cross over cable
Ethernet cords are mostly used in houses to link two pcs without a Hub. This wire has a surpassed deliver and get cables. Hub or Switch done this instantly for us.
• Coaxial Cable thin net
Coaxial wire is copper wire and depending on then 108.2a conventional of the IEEE. Coaxial wire can protect up to 180 meters. This sends up to 30mbps. These kinds of cords are used for little techniques because coaxial cords simple to set up and sustain.
• Twisted Pair Cable – Thick net
There are two kinds of twisted couple cords. They are UTP (Unshielded Turned Pair) and STP (Shielded Turned Pair). Turned couple wire highest possible duration is 100 meters and both ends has RJ 45 relationships. Turned couple wire lower information reduction at great wavelengths per unit duration and simple to set up.
• Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic wire is a versatile, factor versatile fiber which is enclosed by plastic protect. This wire known as the 10baseFL. Roughage optic wire highest possible duration is 2000 meters. Benefits of Roughage wire is less information reduction and it has a huge potential of data transferring.
In given situation HDC bookshop new division going to set up a new complete program system. HDC has 350 workers in this new division. To design a computer network to the division first of all have to choose appropriate network topology and server architecture to the division. Prior to buying a topology there is some details to consider such as variety of workers using pcs and variety of divisions in the organization?
• Total Team 350
• 300 Team handling writing and proof-reading tasks. Out of 300 employees 150 staff will be working with academic guides and the rest (150) will be working with common guides.
• 50 Team will be operating in Marketing, Accounts, IT division, etc.
After considering above facts about the workers of the organization, it is simple to style and choose appropriate program for the division.
Selecting Proper Sensible Topology
Now it is simple to take a choice on the program topology that is appropriate for this division.
There are three primary topologies. They are
• Bus
• Ring
• Tree
• Star
In bus topology all the nodes are in the program linked with only one wire known as central source. Bus topology does not have any primary system because of that it is challenging to diagnose.
But this division needs some type of excellent topology with simple problem solving and also with a primary program. HDC has 300 staff so HDC will use around 300 pcs too. When using 300 pcs in the program then it should be an excellent program system such as simple to problem solving, readily available mistakes in the program, and should have a primary program and data file discussing program. So Bus Topology is not an appropriate system for the HDC new division due to many drawbacks.
Ring program topology is also same as Bus topology. If one pc is unsuccessful, then whole program will be unsuccessful. In Ring topology information delivers clockwise or anticlockwise. Main drawback is if one node is not able then whole program will fail.
HDC new division is with around 300 pcs. If any pc unsuccessful out of this 300 then the whole division will be affected. Because of this reason Ring topology is also not appropriate for HDC new division program system.
In Tree topology all the nodes are linked with a primary system but shrub topology is selection of celebrity and bus. In shrub topology there are few drawbacks. Network range and rate relies on the wire that uses for the program. When it comes with many nodes, it is very challenging to sustain but a program should be simple to sustain and diagnose.
This is also not appropriate for HDC new division because HDC is working with nearly 300 pcs.
In Star topology all the nodes are linked with a primary system. Hub or Switch will continue to perform as primary system and will spread the details. Switch is better than hub because change delivers information to intended receiver rather than all serves in the program.
Star topology has more benefits than drawbacks and it is a more organized program topology than other program topologies. Having a primary program is the primary advantage.
Star topology is the most appropriate one for HDC new division with 300 pcs. It is decided to apply celebrity topology to this division as Sensible topology.. In this situation there are some limitations when using celebrity topology.
Main restriction in celebrity topology is variety of nodes and how well program is performing and it relies on the potential of the primary system. If one is looking for a very great potential primary system it will more price.
As well as logical topology there must be an actual physical topology for the LAN. To celebrity logical topology appropriate physical topology is bus. Actual topology shows how the program is physically linked.
Physical Star Topology
This topology is the most popular in the LAN program wiring. One of the benefits in this topology is natural centralization resources. Because of all pcs link at one place. Actual stars mostly set up using Unshielded Turned Pair wire or Coaxial Cable.
• For the HDC new division suggested logical topology is Star and physical topology also Star.
Selecting Proper Server Architecture
There are few Server Architectures such as Reasoning, Professional to Professional and Customer Server Architecture.
Cloud Handling Architecture
Cloud computing is a technological innovation that uses online and remote web servers. In cloud computing all the customers can accessibility the applications without setting up them but using online. Can accessibility data files from any pc.
The best example for cloud computing is delivering an e-mail using Yahoo email, Gmail or Google mail. For these assistance you do not need to set up any application only need online. Just simply sign in to the e-mail account and delivering the e-mail.
Cloud computing needs a cloud organization. The only factor that users/client pc needs is a Reasoning Handling System Control Program.
But the cloud computing is not the appropriate hosting server structure for this HDC division. Reasoning hosting server computing companies are taking some great rates to supply their services so it will be a drawback of this program and HDC needs some well applied and well-handled hosting server structure that can perform with around 300 pcs.
Peer to Peer
This peer to see program is also known as individual to individual. In this program individual pc from a loose team can connect with others in the team. There are no set customers and web servers.
This program performs without any hosting server. Sometimes it can be a benefit but sometimes there can be drawback too. It relies on the situation that the program is used. P2P is excellent for data file discussing and it is the most famous data file discussing method in today's world.
Client Server Architecture
In the Customer hosting server structure details are installed/saved on highly effective pcs known as Servers. Server is a primary components system in the program. These web servers are managed by a program manager. If we take this as a workplace, then workers pcs are known as customers. The client and hosting server machine are linked by a program. This is known as client hosting server structure. This is applicable when the consumer and hosting server both are in the same place. (E.g.: Workplace, School)
Comparing Professional to Professional and Customer Server
Peer to Peer Client Server
If one peer unsuccessful it will not impact to the whole system One node failing will not impact to the whole network
Less security High Security
No primary server Working on primary Server
Cost is low Cost is high
After evaluating some functions in Professional to Professional and Customer Server structure anyone can see best one is Customer Server because client hosting server structure is a well handled program with primary hosting server. In peer to see there is no set client or hosting server or program manager to deal with the program so it is a huge drawback. Having program directors to control the program, it is very safe and can secure from illegal obtaining to the program. In peer to see program anyone can join and discuss their data files with others at any time. But in the consumer hosting server structure, discussing can be done only within where or developing. Strangers cannot accessibility the hosting server or client PCs.
For the HDC new division appropriate program is Customer Server Architecture..
Task 2
Bandwidth is calculating program rate. Details is very important and program interaction relies on that. If bandwidth is greater, then performance it also greater. Details in the program is throughput of logical and physical topology. Details is the overall potential of the relationship.
To accomplish the required throughput in the program there are some requirements.
• Use appropriate cables
• Use appropriate relationship for the program
• Use appropriate components for the network
• Use appropriate managing system
Ethernet relationship is more important factor to accomplish a excellent throughput.
Ethernet is a method that manages the flow of data in the Regional Position Network. This is a difficult wired technological innovation. Now a days Ethernet LAN cards helps up to 100Mbps rate. This use coaxial wire or fiber optic wire.
There are some Ethernet requirements.
IEEE Standards
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) has developed this series of requirements. Most important requirements are
• 802.3 (Ethernet)
• 802.11 (Wireless LAN)
• 802.15 (Bluetooth)
• 802.16 (Wireless MAN)
This program can be used as difficult wired or wi-fi, so for this option there should be two kinds of IEEE, one for difficult wired and one for wi-fi.
For the HDC new division appropriate IEEE conventional is 802.3 for difficult wired and for wi-fi appropriate one is 802.11a.
IEEE 802.3
This is used usually in local area program. Some functions in IEEE 802.3
• Speed – Original 10Mbps, For Quick Ethernet – 100Mbps.
• Suitable for Star and Bus topology.
• Can use coaxial, twisted couple and fiber optic wire.
IEEE 802.11a
For the wi-fi relationship appropriate one is IEEE 802.11a.
• Maximum program bandwidth is up to 54Mbps.
• Modulation type is OFDM.
• Suitable for offices.
Task 3
Distance Vector and Link Condition are redirecting methods which are used by wireless routers to ahead bundle between program. The objective of any redirecting method is to connect program direction to discover destinations and to choose best direction to discover the destination.
Distance Vector Routing
Distance vector method deliver frequent transmitted at every 30 or 90 seconds to all the relationships to connect with their others who live nearby. Range vector methods are effective in little techniques.
Distance vector redirecting methods do not need huge CPU or storage to shop redirecting information.
This is a limited scalability because of low unity and the advantages of the gap vector redirecting is choice depending on hop count.
Link Condition Routing
Link state redirecting is working with every switching node linked with the program. The complete redirecting desk is not distributed from wireless router, only a part of the desk include the next door neighbor.
Some weblink state methods are IS-IS and OSPF. Link state redirecting has excellent flexibility than distance vector redirecting. This reduces some traffic and provides excellent choices about redirecting.
Some benefits are
• This performs with huge network
• Support classless routings
• Use ordered structure
• Entire redirecting desk is not deliver as a update
Link Condition redirecting is highly effective than distance vector. Because weblink state performs with huge program. Also HDC is a huge program with 350 pcs. This Link state is the suggested one for the HDC new division. Link state up-dates are multicast and No redirecting circles also. This performs effectively with huge techniques Sends only up-dates on topology changes so this is the suggested one for HDC new division.
Task 4
When developing a program there are more factors to consider. There are so many factors that need to develop a program but should consider specially the factors used for the program (hardware, software) and how it is performed. Program and components performance are very key elements when applying a program. Network performance and program life relies on the components that is used in the program. For that, you must choose some excellent and appropriate components for the HDC new division program system.
Network Device (Hardware)
There are many components that needs to develop a new program. Some are not very important, some are very important and their brands too. To get the complete performance from the program best components gadgets should be used to the program. If components gadgets give best assistance then the whole program will function effectively for the satisfaction of the consumer. Some components that need to apply the network
• Network Swtiches
• Network routers
• Network Cables
Network Switches
Switch is like a wireless router. This charts IP details with the MAC IP deal with in the LAN. This not transmitted information to the all the nodes. This delivers only to the actual pc.
For the HDC new division suggested Switch is NETGEAR FS750T2NA 48 Slot Switch.
HDC new division needs 10 Changes from this product. There are 150 Customers (clients) using Educational guides and it is one division. For that division 4 switches are required from this product. But one change will have more 100 % free slots. Just in situation if HDC required to add more pcs to that division then HDC should buy another new change but when having 100 % free slots HDC can add any pc at at any time to that division very quickly.
There are 6 more switches available. Another 4 Changes for the General guide division. It also has 150 users (clients). In this division also HDC can add PCs at at any time because there are some 100 % free slots because suggested change has 48 slots.
So the last two 2 switches are for the Control division and they have 50 pcs. In this section also many 100 % free slots are available in the change. It is not a problem at all. Just in situation at any time HDC can add new pc to the change without buying a new change.
Like this suggested change as shown above will be used in this new division.
Some functions in NETGEAR FS750T2NA 48 Slot Switch
• 48 10/100Mbps slots and 2 Gigabit ports
• Key management feature
• Compatibility with IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.3U and more
Network Routers
Router is a system that performs as a primary factor within the pcs. Routers can be separated as Wireless and Analogue. Every wireless router has a redirecting software. This functions as Actual Part in the OSI design.
After checking on many program wireless routers, chosen one is D-Link DIR-130 Router. This wireless router comes with some excellent functions.
D-Link DIR-130 Features
• 100Mbps Speed
• Firewall Protection
• Dynamic DNS server
• NAT support
• Compatibility with IEEE 802.3
As well as difficult wired relationship HDC maybe will use wi-fi relationship also in situation so for that there should be a wi-fi wireless router too. Linksys WAP54G Wireless entry way is a best product with best performance.
• Data exchange rate 54Mbps
• Supports IEEE 802.11a and 802.11n
For the web servers and for customers PCs needs operating-system. Without an os nothing can do in the PC or Server.
Server Operating System
Before setting up a os to hosting server HDC should sure what type of hosting server os needs. Well for the HDC new division needs some type of excellent hosting server os with GUI and simple to use. In situation someone who have little information about pcs also can use the hosting server OS.
For the HDC new division, chosen Server OS is Ms windows Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 is a hosting server still use in local techniques. This provides well protection and active directory. It will help to handle data files. This is a GUI os so very simple to deal with.
There are few drawbacks as well, such as heavy price of os and need of trained staff.
• Newly set up HDC new division program needs 3 duplicates of Server Operating program (Windows Server 2003)
Client Computers Operating System
When choosing an os for client PCs it is required to check more simple to use os and bug less os. Today most of the pcs used globally is Ms Microsoft windows seven. It is very simple to use and simple to deal with.
Windows 7 GUI interface guide has so many functions. This is very highly effective os and it is simple to get connected to the globally web and simple to create program in the windows seven. When factors are upgrading individuals have to move on with it or individuals have to upgrade their pcs with new functions. That makes new factors.
Some new functions in Ms Microsoft windows 7
• Very simple to use GUI interface
• High Speed
• Better Networking
• Easy Sharing with Group
• Compatibility to all the latest software
When considering about these functions and many more about Ms windows seven it is the appropriate one for the HDC new division client PCs.
Other Software
There are some other software HDC need such as
• Antivirus Guards
• Word Handling Software
Antivirus Guard
Antivirus secure will secure the pcs from malware and unwanted websites. To keep clean the pc and to secure our information you must have a anti-virus software.
Eset is a new anti-virus secure with so many functions. Most important factor is operating fast without any mistakes. Eset is simple to use, its interface is very simple to use and operating completely with low storage. When scanning, it is efficiently operating in the background while user performs in the pc.
This anti-virus secure will continue to perform completely with perform area pcs and the hosting server. So the suggested Antivirus secure is Eset Antivirus.
Word Handling Software
HDC perform area pcs are used for term processing perform such as writing and proof-reading. It does not need more advanced software. Best software that can be used is Ms Workplace 2010 package.
GUI simple to use interface gives best to users and it is simple to use even with basic information about office software.
MS Workplace 2010 is the suggested term processing software for HDC division.
Task 5
HDC new division program needs 350 pcs and web servers to run the program more efficiently.
Before installation of the program to the new division, appropriate program should be chosen (Server) that suits to the HDC new division and components gadgets that will be set up in the program too should be chosen carefully..
There are many kinds of web servers, such as Client Server, Web hosting server, Mail Server, Create Server, Data source Server etc.
HDC new division needs some web servers as prescribed below to finish the program.
• File Server
• Database Server
• Email Server
• Print Server
• DHCP Server
• DNS Server
File Server
File hosting server is a highly effective pc that has discuss drive area. File web servers can be utilized by the consumer PCs/workstation pcs that are in the program. This does not run any program. File web servers are made to offer area to shop information and discuss within the program and its perform area PCs.
Advantages of Having a File Server
• Easy to handle
• High protection to information
• Sharing details are simple (transfer information to one pc to another)
• Centralized Printers and can discuss hardware
• Back up of all details are easy
Database Server
Server database is a dedicated hosting server to offer database assistance. Generally, this is used in Customer Server atmosphere. Data source hosting server is very useful in business atmosphere when there is bulk date to be handled. Data source hosting server is more effective than data file hosting server.
Advantages of Having a Data source Server
• Can shop all the details in one location
• More protection for data
• Easy to save and accessibility information in database server
• Several uses can accessibility the database at once
Email Server
Email hosting server is a software that can deliver and get e-mail from the same sector address users in the program. There is a pc to run this Email hosting server application and it is known as Mail Server.
Advantages of Having a Mail Server
• Client pcs can quickly deliver e-mails from their own address
Print Server
Print hosting server is a components system that joins all the photo printers in the program to client pcs. When a customer delivers out paper command , print hosting server delivers the indication to the correct publishing device to do the publishing. Create Server is very useful in a workplace that has many divisions. This helps many uses to get entry to the same publishing device for their publishing purposes.
DHCP Server
Dynamic Host Settings Protocol (DHCP) allows to determine IP details to pcs instantly in the program within the given range. Sometimes two client pcs may use same IP deal with due to an error, DHCP will help to reduce this issue.
DNS Server
Domain Name Product is managing web sites and online websites. When someone types a web deal with in the web browser, DNS hosting server will look for the deal with of the site joined by that individual. DNS hosting server solving hostnames to IP details.
These are the some special web servers that need to set up for HDC new division program system. Without any of these web servers program will not give 100% precision.
Task 6
Client PCs
HDC needs 350 pcs. It means 350 client PCs. Before choosing PCs to HDC new division there is something to know. That is the real objective that HDC using these computers?
Actually HDC is guide posting organization so HDC use these pcs only for term processing and proof-reading. For that it is not important to have enhance PCs but PCs with new os such as Ms windows seven.
It is advised to buy Apple Primary 2 Duo processer pcs with Apple Mother board. Sounds like Primary 2 Duo is enhance for the guide posting organization but have to think about future too. Program might be changed with the new technological innovation. When upgrading software, some great processor chips are required therefore, Primary 2 Duo Processors are suggesting to HDC PCs.
350 PCs with Primary 2 Duo Processor and Apple Motherboards with LAN assistance will be sufficient . Because HDC is applying a program system so if motherboard has LAN plug (Network Card) it is not required to spend extra amount and buy separate NIC cards for all the 350 PCs.
So suggested PCs are Primary 2 Duo Processor PCs with Apple Motherboards that LAN helps.
Workstation Computers Specifications
Processor Intel 2.8Ghz Primary 2 Duo Processor
Motherboard Intel DG31PR
Ram 2GB
Hard Disk 160GB
Optical Drivers Sony DVD RW/W
Display 17inch Samsung LCD
Keyboard Standard USB Logitech Keyboard
Mouse Standard USB Logitech Mouse

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