Nowadays, most people have taken care with their health. People will also care what they eat so that they will be healthy. Especially there are many case about food poisoning has happening around us. Food safety is a very important to us because food safety is a lesson that is provide to us so that it can help us have more knowledge such as how to keeping the foods more safety and clean, how to reduce pathogens, time and temperature abuse and more. Food safety also teaches us how to prepare the food, storing the food and more. The reason we have to keep the food safe is because that we won’t easily get illness like food poisoning. Food poisoning also been known as food borne.
Not only the consumer needs take good care of the food but the food providers also need to take care of the food. It is a responsibility for the food provider to take good care of the food. The reason is because it is a duty for the food provider to take good care of the food if the food is not clean and the consumer eat it and get food poisoning, the consumer may died for food poisoning. Many people have died because of food poisoning. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are about forty eight million people get illness, 128,000 people are hospitalized because of this illness and also 3000 people has die from food poisoning diseases each year.
2.0 ANSWER OF QUESTION 1
For us to know more about food safety there is a need to develop a flow chart that is about food safety and the flow chart will teach us step by step to keep the food safe. Inside the flow chart, the step we will start first is receive and the others following steps will be storing, preparing, cooking, holding, serving, cooling and also reheating.
The meaning of receive is to get some form someone. The food that we receive from supplier, in the sending process we can’t imagine what have happen. That is why we have to check the condition of the lorry that sent the food to us. The lorry must be clean from the inside so the food that place inside the lorry will also be clean. The temperature of the lorry is also important because if the temperature is very high, the food is not fresh and also will grow bacteria. The lorry fridge must always keep temperature low so that the food will always fresh.
Storing is very important so that we can keep the food clean. We will store the inside the fridge so the food won’t easily growth bacteria. If the temperature of the fridge is too high it will also growth bacteria. The suitable temperature for the food inside the fridge is 8ºc or below. It is also important for us to wrap the food before put inside the fridge. The reason is because the food won’t easily growth bacteria from the others from that may have already began to growth bacteria. We also must faster put the chilled food inside the fridge so it won’t growth bacteria.
It is very important for us to wash our hand when we are preparing food because our hand is the most bacteria growth. The more safety ways for us is wearing a pair of gloves when preparing foods. We must also take good care of the food because when we take out the food from the fridge, it is the time that the bacteria always growth. We must also need to change our knife after chopping meat, after change knife we can chop vegetables. The reason why we have to change our knife after chopping meat to vegetable is because that the bacteria will start to growth if we still using the same knife to chop the vegetables.
Cooking is the faster way to kill bacteria because bacteria will always die in a high heat. We also must make sure to cook the food long time if not the bacteria won’t die, if we eat the food that have bacteria we may get food poisoning. The suitable temperature when we cook the food is 74ºc. If we follow this temperature, we don’t need to scare that the foods still have bacteria. To check the temperature of the food while cooking it would be good if we use the thermometer to check the food temperature.
After cooking the food, we should put the food on the clean plate. If they are no one eating and we need to wrap the food so that the bacteria won’t got inside the foods. The reason we must wrap the food to avoid bacteria is because if we eat the food that have bacteria, we may get food poisoning. We should also put the food to a safe place.
When serving the food to the customers, we must wash our hand before serving the customers. If our hands are dirty, the customers won’t come to our restaurant eat again and the customers will also complain our restaurant. It will also be bad if the customers get food poisoning from our food. If the customers that get food poisoning want to sue our restaurant, it is danger for us to continue our industry because they can accuse us by laws as well.
Normally, it takes a very long time to wait the food gets cold. The that just been cooked it takes two hours with room temperature but using fridge will be very fast. If using fridge the time taken to cool the food will one hours.
Reheating is to heat cooked foods again after it has been left to go cold. Reheating back the foods that just take out from the fridge. We must be careful because the bacteria already have growth when the food is inside the fridge. The suitable temperature us to reheat the leftover food in the fridge is at least higher that the 165ºc. The leftover food in the fridge get the highest bacteria growth because the leftover food is not fresh anymore that is why the bacteria growth os many.
The conclusion is most people have taken care with their health. People will also care what they eat so that they will be healthy. Food safety is a very important to us because food safety is a lesson that is provide to us so that it can help us have more knowledge such as how to keeping the foods more safety and clean, how to reduce pathogens, time and temperature abuse and more. For us to know more about food safety there is a need to develop a flow chart that is about food safety and the flow chart will teach us step by step to keep the food safe. Inside the flow chart, the step we will start first is receive and the others following steps will be storing, preparing, cooking, holding, serving, cooling and also reheating. First is receive, the food that we receive from supplier, in the sending process we can’t imagine what have happen. The lorry must be clean from the inside so the food that place inside the lorry will also be clean. Second is storing, we will store the inside the fridge so the food won’t easily growth bacteria. Third is preparing, it is very important for us to wash our hand when we are preparing food because our hand is the most bacteria growth. The more safety ways for us is wearing a pair of gloves when preparing foods. Fourth will be cooking, cooking is the faster way to kill bacteria because bacteria will always die in a high heat. Fifth is holding, if they are no one eating and we need to wrap the food so that the bacteria won’t got inside the foods. Sixth is cooling, it takes two hours with room temperature to cool the food but using fridge will be very fast. The last one is reheating, reheating is to heat cooked foods again after it has been left to go cold.
HACCP has also been known as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. The reason that we have HACCP is because HACCP is a systematic technique for us to prevent the food safety hazards that use chemical to process the food. HACCP was first introduced in the year 1960’s. NASA used it first and the later it was introduced to the others commercial areas such as Pillsbury and the others food manufacturers. The HACCP system can be by all stages of food chain, from food production to preparation process including packaging, distribution and more. All of the food manufactures also have to follow the HACCP guidelines. It is important that the food manufactures to follow the HACCP guidelines because guarantee the food manufactures produce the most safe food products to the market. If the food manufactures didn’t follow the HACCP guidelines, there may be some unsafe hazard like physical, biological and also chemical. For physical, the object that use to packaging may have bacteria. As for biological, the foods are started growing bacteria has put to the no bacteria food and the others food that don’t have bacteria may get the bacteria. Last is the chemical, chemical product are getting though the food.
ANSWER OF QUESTION 2
2.1 THE SEVEN PRINCIPLE OF HACCP
Every food production has to make their staff follow the seven principles of HACCP. The first five of the HACCP principles are a legal requirement to the food production staff. For the six and seven principles of HACCP, should be a good practice to the food production staff.
2.1.1 CONDUCT A HAZARD ANALYSIS
Conduct a hazard analysis is the first principles of HACCP. The first principle is about that we must find anything on the food that which may cause harm to the customer health such as chemical, physical and also biological. For chemical, chemical products are getting though the food so the customers eat it and may cause harm to their bodies. As for physical, the object that use to packaging the food may have bacteria and it will also harm the customer health. Last is the biological, the food are started growing bacteria has put to the no bacteria food and the others food that don’t have bacteria may get the bacteria.
2.1.2 IDENTIFY CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
Identify critical control point also been called as CCP is the second principles of HACCP. The second principle is a point, process or step which can control and also avoid the food safety hazard and also reduce the food safety hazard to an acceptable level so it won’t harm the health of customers.
2.1.3 ESTABLISH CRITICAL LIMITS
Establish critical limits are the third principles of HACCP. The third principle is about the limit value which control the food safe hazard like chemical, physical and also biological by reduces the harm to an acceptable level like separate the safe food from the unsafe food.
Example: Critical limit of the fridge storage
0-5ºc - the food store in this temperature is not critical
8ºc - this is critical limit for storing food
10ºc - this is totally not safe for the food to store in this critical limit
2.1.4 ESTABLISH MONITORING PROCEDURES
Establish monitoring procedures are the fourth principles of HACCP. The fourth principle is about monitoring the activities of the food to unsure that the process is under control of the critical control point.
2.1.5 ESTABLISH CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
Establish corrective actions are the fifth principles of HACCP. The fifth principle is about the actions has to be taken when the monitoring of the critical limit does not react to the acceptable limit. Corrective actions team will help to investigate and correct the result again. Example, now the fridge temperature is 10ºc and the corrective action will be remonitor to one hour, put the food in other fridge that the temperature are 8ºc or below.
2.1.6 ESTABLISH RECORD KEEPING PROCEDURES
Establish record keeping procedures are the sixth principles of HACCP. The sixth principle is about keeping the record of the food process and the food result. It is very important to keep the record because it may help to solve the problem as soon as possible and also help us to avoid this problem happening again. The record will be keeping inside computer files. The record can be makes in work instruction, chart, written procedures, monitor record, sampling record, training record, invoice and more.
2.1.7 ESTABLISH VERIFICATION PROCEDURES
Establish verification procedures are the seventh principles of HACCP. The seventh principle is about taking verification of the result. Check the result step by step to make sure the result is correct. If the result is correct, this is the last step for the seven principles of the HACCP.
2.2 RISK ANALYSIS
The risk analysis is intended to provide guidance to the national governments for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication with regard to food related risks to human health.
2.2.1 RISK ASSESSMENT
Each risk assessment should be fit for its intended purpose. The scope and purpose of the risk assessment being carried out should be clearly stated and in accordance with risk assessment policy. The output form and possible alternative outputs of the risk assessment should be defined. Risk assessment should incorporate the four steps of risk assessment. Example, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characteristics. Risk should be based on scientific data most relevant to the national context. It should use available quantitative information to the greatest extent possible. Risk assessment may also take into account qualitative information. Risk assessment should also take into account relevant production, storage and handling practices used throughout the food chain including traditional practices, methods of analysis, sampling and inspection and the prevalence of specific adverse health effects.
2.2.2 RISK MANAGEMENT
National government decisions on risk management, including sanitary measures taken, should have as their primary objective the protection of the health of consumers. Unjustified differences in the measures selected to address similar risks in different situations should be avoided. The decisions should be based on risk assessment, and should be proportionate to the assessed risk, taking into account, where appropriate, other legitimate factors relevant for the health protection of consumers and for the promotion of fair practices in food trade, in accordance with the Criteria for the Consideration of the Other Factors Referred to in the Second Statement of Principles as they relate to decisions at the national level. National Governments should base their sanitary measures on Codex standards and related texts, where available.
2.2.3 RISK COMMUNICATION
Risk communication should be more than the dissemination of information. Its major function should be to ensure that all information and opinion required for effective risk management is incorporated into the decision making process.
Risk communication should:
Promote awareness and understanding of the specific issues under consideration during the risk analysis.
Promote consistency and transparency in formulating risk management options
Improve the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the risk analysis
Strengthen the working relationship among the participants
Cultivate public understanding of the process so they can improve trust and confidence in the safety of the food supply
Promote the suitable participate of all interested parties
Exchange information in relation to the concern of interested parties about the risk associated with food
Respect the legitimate concern to preserve confidentiality where applicable.
The conclusion is HACCP is a systematic technique for us to prevent the food safety hazards that use chemical to process the food. It is important that the food manufactures to follow the HACCP guidelines because guarantee the food manufactures produce the most safe food products to the market. Every food production has to make their staff follow the seven principles of HACCP. The seven principles of HACCP is conduct a hazard analysis, identify critical control point, establish critical limits, establish monitoring procedures, establish corrective actions, establish record keeping procedures and establish verification procedures. As for the risk analysis, is intended to provide guidance to the national governments for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication with regard to food related risks to human health.