As a food safety expert, what consideration would you advocate to ensure a "food-safe" facility? Explain briefly.
As food safety expert, there need to check whether the food that provided to customer is safe to eat or not. It is to improve the quality of foods and prevents food contamination. There need legislation to make sure the food is safe and hygiene. The employers and employees should know to manage the food safety to ensure the food is away from bacteria and germs. Employers and employees has its own duty to provide a safe and hygiene food for the customer.
The person who works in the kitchen will meet a lot of hazards. For example, the workers should be careful if there is slippery floor, on that floor must place caution wet floor sign to prevent anyone from slippery. Therefore, the workers should wear safety boots to prevent slippery and also to protect the legs from get injured or accidentally pour hot oil or water. In addition, there are so many hazards in the guidelines which is the employees should follow. The employers and employees need legislation to be responsible, punctuality and also be as professional as well. The legislation is also to minimize the risks that happen in the kitchen. The risks happens when the employees does not follow the guidelines. For example, the workers at kitchen should not run in the kitchen, make jokes and play with kitchen equipments such as knife and forks. There are dangerous risks that happen in kitchen. Maintaining high level of safety is also very important in legislation. It will give the employees the awareness to minimize the hazards and risks. For example, if the workers do not know to use electrical equipment in kitchen, the head of kitchen management or chef should teach to operate the equipment or label the steps to handle it on the particular equipment. It will make sure that the employee understand and follow the steps to prevent any accident occur. Furthermore, legislation is also a protection for employers and employees for keep secure and safe to work.
HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORK ACT 1974
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is established for employers and employees. It is to protect employers and employees in the working environment. It is an act that gives protection to employers and employees to keep health and maintain safety. The act also allows the employers to change the act according to the working environment. It is also maintain safe working environment for the workers at kitchen. The employers have to ask for minimum space requirement to place the kitchen equipments. The employers also should check whether the heating and lighting system works or not. It is to prevent food contamination. For example, if the light does not work at kitchen, the worker unable to see the food and accidentally mixed with wrong ingredient and it will cause food infection.
The employers should make sure the employees follow the guidelines and work carefully in the kitchen. The employers also should provide safe and secure place to work for the employees. It will be comfortable and create a good working environment for the employees. For example, the place should be secure and the employees also will feel safe when working. It will able to make employee comfortable and happy to work. Moreover, the employer also responsible to maintain a safe working environment to the employees. The employers should check all the equipments at kitchen to prevent any hazards and risks. For example, the employers should check the chiller and any other electrical equipment in the kitchen for make sure there is no problem during using it. Other than that, the employers should provide information and training session to the employees so the employees understand the procedure and give a good performance on the work. It is also to make sure the satisfaction of customer and also employee on how the service provided.
The employees’ duties go for safe use of kitchen equipment. The employee should be careful when using the knife or other sharp equipment. The employee must wear provided protective clothing for the cooking classes at kitchen. It is also to prevent food contamination because the clothes that people usually wear to everywhere are not suitable for kitchen and it may has bacteria on the clothes. In addition, the employee must attend the training session that provided by employers to make sure the employee knows how to handle emergency situation or any other situation that would burden everyone. Furthermore, the employee must report if there is any accident occur at kitchen to the head of kitchen for prevent any problems. It will reduce the hazards, accidents and creates safe working environment at kitchen.
MANAGING FOOD SAFETY
Food safety involves prevention of cross contamination. All the food must be safe to eat and not affected to bacteria or germs for make sure the food not affect customer’s health. Temperature control is also important to hand make sure the food is cooked properly. The workers should know how to handle the temperature to cook food because all the food not in fixed temperature, there are different temperature for different foods. For example, if the temperature is not correct, it will affect the food and also cause food contamination. Additionally, time control is used in managing food safety for make sure the food cooked well and to kill the bacteria and germs. For example, the meats that taken out from the refrigerator should not keep for longer time at outside because it will easily will affect to germs. It also involves personal hygiene of a person before prepare the food and serve the food to customer. It also will reduce the contamination of food and ensure the workers at kitchen always clean and neat. Other than that, cleaning is most important at kitchen for prevent food contamination. The environment of kitchen must be clean always. For example, there rats and cockroach should not roam on the floor or under the table. Pest control is also important to kill the insects and flies. The food safety management should call the pest control or place the fly killer device to prevent the food affect with the germs of the flies. Maintenance of good premises is important to reduce the hazards on kitchen. Minor cleaning and major cleaning should be done by every restaurant to clean the outlets of the restaurant and to make sure the restaurants clean.
2.1 PERSONAL CARE
Personal care is very important to those who works at kitchen and handles food every day. There should be a leader who takes responsibility to make sure the workers follow the guidelines. It is to ensure the workers able to look clean and neat. The workers at kitchen should keep the finger nails short to prevent any dirt hides under nail and also to prevent bacteria under the nail affect the food. It may cause food contamination. Other than that, jewelry like necklaces, rings and watches are prohibited from wearing inside the kitchen. It is to prevent the jewelries fall into the food. In addition, the workers at kitchen should wear proper attire. The proper attire that should wear at kitchen is chef attire, chef hat, gloves, safety boots and also aprons. For women, a long hair should be bun because the hair might fall into the food. The main thing that every worker has to follow is wash hand properly. The workers have to wash hand using liquid soap and must make sure the hand was washed well between the fingers and scrub the nails to prevent bacteria. There are eight steps for proper wash hand.
Wet hands thoroughly into clean water
Use approved soap
Rub palms together
Rub the fingers
Rinse hands thoroughly
Use paper towel for drying
Turn off the tap using the paper towel
3.0 FOOD SAFETY DURING FOOD PREPARATION IN THE KITCHEN
In the kitchen, there are different chopping boards for different raw foods. The workers identify the chopping boards by the colors of the boards. The workers usually label each chopping boards to easily identify it. Furthermore, the kitchen utensil also should use separately to different foods to prevent food contamination. The workers should keep the raw food and cooked food separately all the time. The bacteria of raw food easily will affect the cooked food and causes food infection. The bacteria can be reducing by using proper serving, handling, storing and preparing foods. The main high risk food that easily affected by bacteria and germs are meats, chicken, fish, cooked rice, cooked eggs, milk, creams, custards and seafood. Temperature is better thing to keep the food in good condition. The high risk of cold food should kept below 5°C and the high risk of hot food should kept over 63° C. It will able to prevent bacteria from affecting the food.
3.1 CLEAN THE KITCHEN AFTER THE WORK FINISH
The workers should clean the kitchen before leaving the kitchen after the works done. The sinks and the floors must be clean and disinfected after cooking with appropriate cleaners properly. The workers should place dustbin at kitchen for keep the kitchen clean. The wastage of food should remove it to the bin to prevent it from the bad smell. The workers need to leave the kitchen with safe and good condition for others to use.
The employers and employees should follow all the facility of food safe to provide food that safe to eat to the customer. The employees also should follow the procedure about the food safety to prevent the food contamination. The workers should follow the guideline to provide a safe and hygiene food for the customer. The employers and employees should be responsible on providing a healthy food to customers. Food safe is very important to ensure the people to be healthy and prevent from food infection.
Discuss the concept of HACCP and risk analysis in the context of food safety.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP) is a systematized approach to preventing food borne illness during the production and preparation of food. It is helps to the food away from contamination and ensuring the food safety. There are also seven principles HACCP that make sure the food is not affected to any infections. The risk analysis is a tool that carrying out consistent solutions to food safety problem. It also includes food production, health protection of the public expectation and many other factors.
1.0 CONCEPT OF HACCP
The concept of HACCP is to describe the systematic to recognize the critical points such as unsafe procedure and production in food production process. The goal of HACCP is to identify biological, chemical and physical hazard and also to include preventive measures throughout the process. The hazard can be stop before it starts by using HACCP concept. The HACCP system incorporated by the food industry, including processing plants, food service establishment and food corporations. The only real standard method of ensuring food safety compliance previously was health department inspections. HACCP plan to shift the emphasis from policing to prevention. It also based on the flow of food rather than meeting minimum sanitary recommendations.
2.0 THE SEVEN HACCP PRINCIPLES
HACCP is a step by step food safety program based on the seven principles. All the seven steps in a HACCP plan are written by the food establishment’s management into a customized plan that follow the food flow of the organization. The HACCP program can be somewhat complex and time consuming. The first principle is assessing or identifying potential hazards. It is important to consider in the hazard analysis the raw material and ingredients. The steps in the process are product storage and distribution and the final preparation that used by consumer. The second principle goes to identifying critical control points (CCP). It is a point in the HACCP process that must be controlled to ensure the safety of the food. Examples of CCPs are product temperature, certification, incoming products, microbiological testing and many more. The third principle is to establishing quantifiable limits such as temperature for each CCP. HACCP plan to establish critical limits for each critical control points. The critical limits are to ensure applicable targets or performance and must be actual values that can be measured or quantified. The forth principle is monitoring CCPs to make sure that it stay within the recommended limits. Monitoring is a sequence of observations to assess the CCP under the control and to produce an accurate record. The fifth principle is to establish corrective action. The HACCP plan must include corrective actions that should take when a deviation from the critical limits happens at a critical control point. The sixth principle goes to verifying through regularly evaluating records and the last but not the least, the seventh principle is to documenting through record keeping. The record is an evidence of documenting the operation of the HACCP system. Purposely, the record view is to make sure the records are prepared correctly.
3.0 RISK ANALYSIS
Risk analysis is a process consisting of three components. There are risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. The risk analysis is to improve food safety system and strengthen the ability of traditional food safety systems. It is also provides food safety regulators with the information for effective decision making. Risk analysis allows likely costs of compliance to be compared with expected benefits, and supports setting priorities among different food safety problems. It is also helps to objective the absence of hazards or effective control of hazards to produce safe food.
The HACCP is very important to identify the food is safe to eat or not. It has many benefits and should follow it in every food management. The risk analysis can support and improve the development of food safety issue. It is better because it prevent hazards affect the foods procedures. It is used to develop an estimate of the risks to human health and safety.