Different Types Of Screen Displays Information Technology Essay

Published: 2021-08-01 09:30:09
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Chapter 5
Display Screens
Introduction
The display is surface output of the computer and the mechanism expected to show the text and pictures in many cases to the computer servant by using a cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), light emitting diode (LED) and gas plasma (plasma), or other image projection technology. It is usually considered a screen or projection surface and the device to show the information on the screen. in some computers display is packaged in an independent unit called the device. In other computers, is integrated in the display unit with the processor and other parts of the computer. (Some sources make it discrimination, which includes the monitor the other signal-handling devices that supply and control on the monitor or projector, but this distinction disappears when all sections of this integrate in the unity of all, as the case for laptops computers.)
Monitors " displays ", which is sometimes called video display terminals (VDTs). Often use the terms monitor and displays interchangeably.
Most computer screens use analog signals as input to create a mechanism to view the images. This condition need to continuously update the display image means that the computers also require the display adapter or video adapter. Video adapter takes the digital data sent by implementation programs and save it in RAM video (video RAM) memory, and converts it to analog data for display scanning mechanism using digital to analog converter (DAC).Displays can be characterized according to:
Color capability
Sharpness and view ability
The size of the screen
The projection technology
Color Capability
Currently, almost desktop displays provide color. And a small notebook and computers have sometimes display a less expensive monochrome. Display can usually works in one of several display modes that calculate the number of bits used to describe the color and how it can display a lot of colors. Can a screen that can operate in super VGA mode display up to 16777216 colors because it cannot handle 24-bit long characterization of a pixel. Defines the number of bits used to describe the pixel bit-depth. And known as the (24-bit) bit-depth and the real color. For each of the three additive primary colors it allows eight bits only - red, green and blue. Although people cannot really identify that many colors and 24-bit system is appropriate for graphic designers since it assigns one byte for each color. Visual Graphics Array (VGA) mode is the cheapest common denominator of display modes, depending on the preparation of a resolution, can supply up to 256 colors.
Sharpness and View ability
Absolute physical limit on the potential image sharpness of the image on the screen is the pitch point, which is the size of the packages on the individual to get through to light up the point of phosphorus on the screen. (This shape can be a form of a round beam or vertical, in the form of a rectangular slot depending on the display technology.)Displays usually come with a pitch of point 0.28 mm or less. The smallest dot-pitches in millimeters, and sharpen the image potential.
Intensity is measured by the actual destruction of any display picture, especially in dots per inch (dpi). Dots per inch is determined by a group of screen resolution (the number of pixels is expected to appear on the screen horizontally and vertically), and the size of the material screen, in the same resolution, distributed on a larger screen offers reduced sharpness. On the other hand, high-resolution setting will be the smallest surface of the product on a bright image, but reading the text will become more difficult.
Ability view includes the ability to see the image displayed on the screen well from different angles, displays with cathode ray tubes (CRT) ability to provide good overall view from other angles than directly view. Flat panel displays, including those that use light-emitting diode and liquid crystal display technology, and are often difficult to see in the angles other than directly view[8].
The Size of the Screen
On the desktop, the screen width with respect to height, known as the aspect ratio is usually standardized by 4 to 3 (usually referred to as "4:3"). Screen sizes are measured in millimeters or inches each from one corner to the opposite corner. Popular sizes of the desktop screen are a 12 -, 13 -, 15 - and 17-inch. Size of the laptop screen is smaller.
The Projection Technology
Most displays are currently in use employ cathode ray tube (CRT) technology similar to that used in most televisions. The CRT technology requires a specific distance from the support projection device on the screen to function. The use of other technologies can be much thinner displays and flat screens are as well known. Flat panel display technologies include light emitting diode (LED), a liquid crystal display (LCD) and gas plasma. LED and gas plasma work by lighting up display positions based on the voltages at various cross connection. LCD monitors work by blocking light rather than creating it. LCDs demand less power than LED and gas plasma technologies and are presently the principal technology for laptops and other portable computers
Handle data input displayed as character maps for bit-maps. In character and mapping mode, has a view of the amount allocated space for each pixel character, in a bitmap, it receives the exact representation of the image screen that is expected in the form of a series of bits that describe a particular color values ​​of x and y coordinates from a specific location on the screen. The handle bitmaps displaying are known as all - points addressable displays.
Different Types of Screen Displays
CRT
Cathode Ray Tubes Were used in the first versions of TV screens and passed computer monitors, and the surprising it still very popular today. This is mainly because it features reliably and useful. It features a curved display, allowing viewers to see the image from any angle without the colors blur together.
They come in finite volume, and are very large and thick (and not practical for your laptop or mobile), and the production of glare that causes irritation. Although they are didn't needed any more the Cathode rays can also burn on the screen, so someone came up with the screen savers, which simulate moving colors to stop the display still images automatically and burn in the screen permanently, We still have this today.
The reason they are huge and thick due to the increased width of the screen should be increasing the length of the tube in order to give the gun room to reach each phosphorus atom on the screen.
CRT’s work by having a different color cathode ray projected on the back of the screen. A gun fires a beam of electrons inside a glass tube. "Raise" phosphorus atoms of electrons across the screen which light up. The shown image is created by igniting different areas of the phosphor that covered screen with different colors in
different intensity.
Monitor Size and Viewable Area
All CRT monitors are sold based on the size of their screen. This is usually listed on the basis of measuring the diagonal of the bottom corner to corner across the top of the screen in inches. However, the size of the screen does not translate to the actual display size, In general, the monitor tube partially covered by the outer casing of the screen. In addition, the tube usually cannot draw a picture of the edges of a full size tube. As such, you really want to look at the measurement area of the offer from the manufacturer. Usually, the clear area on the screen is approximately from 0.9 up to 1.2 inches smaller than the diagonal tube.
Resolution
All CRT monitors now referred to as multiple simultaneously screens. The screen is capable of tuning such as electron beam that is capable of displaying multiple resolutions at time variation in the rates of update .Here is a list of some of the more commonly used resolutions along with the acronym for that resolution:
SVGA = 800x600
XGA = 1024x768
SXGA = 1280x1024
UXGA = 1600x1200
There is a wide range of resolutions available in standard between standard resolutions that also can be used by the monitor. The average 17" CRT should be able to easily do the SXGA resolution and may even be able to reach the UXGA. Any 21" or larger CRT should be able to do UXGA and higher.
Advantages:
Very good color and top dynamic range (up to around 15,000:1), wide gamut and excellent or low black level (depending on CRT display settings).
No native resolution; the only display technology qualified of true multi-syncing (displaying a lot of various resolutions and refresh rates without the need for scaling).
No input lagging
No shadows and staining artifacts throughout fast motion due to sub-millisecond response time, and impulse-based operation.
Near zero color, saturation, brightness distortion or contrast.
Permit the use of light guns/pens.
Wonderful viewing angle.
Disadvantages:
Size and weight are large, especially for larger screens (20 inches (51 cm) and the unit weighs about 50 lbs (23 kg)).
Comparatively high power consumption with a highly brightness contrast levels and fast scan rates.
Generates a considerable amount of heat when running.
Purpose a geometric distortion by mutable beam travel distances but almost no distortion in the current and/or high-end CRT monitor (not TV) only.
Suffer screen can burn-in
Flicker produces a noticeable at low refresh rates.
Apart from televisions, CRT displays are normally only produced in 4:3 aspect ratios (though some widescreen CRT monitors, notably Sony's GDM-FW900, do exist).
Repair and service are dangerous.
Dimension smaller than seven inches color displays cannot be done. And limited the maximum size of the screens directly to about 40 inches because of practical constraints and manufacturing restriction (CRT screen of this size can weigh about 300 pounds.
Glass envelopes contain large amounts (kilograms in many cases) of toxic lead and barium as radiation shielding X-rays. Phosphors cannot also contain toxic elements such as cadmium. Many countries treat CRTs and toxic waste and prevent the disposal in landfills or by incineration [10].
LCD
There are many different LCD panel technologies used in the production of LCD monitors. They range from budget TN panels to expensive, professional quality H-IPS and MVA panels. The average consumer usually has no idea what LCD panel technology is used in their LCD. In fact, many power users are also unaware, simply because the panel type is not often advertised in a prominent area. Sometimes the panel type is even absent from the monitor specifications. Many users buy monitors based solely on how much it will lighten their wallets. Price should be a factor, but you should still be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of all the different LCD panel types and be able to identify them before you decide which LCD monitor is best for you.
Advantages:
Compact and very light
Low power exhaustion, mostly speaking. On average, 50-70% lower energy is consumed than CRT monitors.
Without distortion geometric.
Little or no flicker consisting on backlight technology.
Not influenced by screen burn in (though the phenomenon is similar to but less severe, known as image continued as possible).
Almost any size or shape can be made.
Without limiting theoretical resolution
Disadvantages:
Limited viewing angle, causing color, saturation, contrast and brightness to vary, even within the intended viewing angle, by variations in posture.
Angle of vision is limited; causing color and purity, contrast and brightness are various; even within the viewing angle is intended, by the changes in position.
Bleeding and dissimilar background in some screens, causing brightness distortion, especially towards the edges
Smearing and caused by slow response times (2-8 ms) and a sample and hold process.
Decision and only one mother. View other decisions requires either a numerical video, and reduce the quality of sensory perception, or display in 1:1 pixel mapping, the images that will be very large or physically will not fill the entire screen.
Constant bit depth. Can be 8-bit S-IPS displays 16 million colors and has a much better black level, but are expensive and have slower response time.
Input lag.
Dead pixels may take place either during industrialization or through use.
In a situation on the basis of, there molestation happen, which is when only part of the screen has overheated and therefore looks without color compared to the rest of the screen.
Slow response at not acceptable at low temperatures.
Its not every LCD screens are designed to allow easy replacement of the backlight.
Cannot be used with light guns/pens.
LED
Light Emitting Diode is the most popular type of display, although not as severe or long-term, such as cathode rays. Very small and light weight makes it the number one choice for companies making thin portable devices. But it is still in the case of display for about 5 years, and then begins to dim the screen. LED screens begin to appear pale and blurry when viewed from a certain distance or angle unless it is built in the IPS, more on that later.
Also the screen blurry because of fast moving objects across the screen. Energy consumption is used by the LED is much larger than the cathode ray
When you run a light emitting diode, the electrons are able to regroup with the electron holes within the device, and release of energy and photons. This is what Apple has to say about these screens led background:
Full brightness and do not wait. This is a great advantage of the LED backlit screen iMac. Unlike most displays that take time to warm up before it reaches the maximum brightness, the LED backlit display is bright and the case in a uniform manner. Background has also gives you more control over the brightness of the screen. You can adjust the screen resolution to match the iMac with the ambient light in the room until the dimmest.
Plasma
Plasma displays are probably the most expensive total supply there. It does not produce glare, which is better than the CRT, making it more popular with people. Large in size and expensive, and it is something to boast about, but it works only for 2-3 years before needing to be replaced, although I would not worry, the next big thing will be out
after that!
Basically, plasma is a gas composed of ions and electrons flowing free. In plasma with an electric current through it, and negatively charged particles that rush to the region that is positively charged, and positively charged particles rushing toward a region with a negative charge. To do so, so excited in a rush, particles collide each other all the time. These vibration gas atoms in the plasma reason for the release of photons of energy. Neon and xenon atoms that are also contained in the plasma to release photons of light.
Advantages:
(1,000,000:1 static or greater,) high contrast ratios and very good color, and low black level.
Sub-millisecond response time
Near zero color, saturation, contrast or brightness distortion. Excellent viewing angle.
Without geometric distortion
Highly scalable, with a gain less weight for each increase in size (from less than 30 in (76 cm) on a large scale the world's largest at 150 in (3.8 m)).
Disadvantages:
Large pixel pitch, and that means either low resolution or on a large screen. As such, is produced plasma color only in sizes over 32 inches (81 cm).
Image flicker, because it based on phosphorus.
Can carry glare by glass screen and reflections.
Increasing power consumption and operating temperature. LCDs expend less power.
Input lag.
Comparatively heavy weight
Only one native resolution. View other decisions require a video scale, which degrades image quality at the lowest resolutions.
Can suffer image burn-in. This was a serious problem on the plasma screens in the early, but the new models included the means to reduce the chance of burning a cross in.
Relatively fragile, and should only be transported, stored, and operates upright, and a screen of glass can shatter under the weight of the display if not supported correctly.
Light guns/pens cannot be used with
Dead pixels are possible during industrialization
AMOLED
AMOLED is a spin off from LED (light emitting diode) it stands for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode. Active matrix (AM) OLED displays stack cathode, the anode and the organic layers at the top of another layer containing the circles. Pixel is defined in the position of organic material in a continuous, and the pattern of separate points. Each pixel is activated / deactivated immediately. AMOLED pixels switch on and off four times faster than the speed of a movie. This makes these screens are ideal for fluid, full motion video, reducing the lack of clarity when objects move quickly across the screen.
The active matrix is a matrix of the cathode and the anode and the organic layers.
Advantages:
Wonderful viewing angle.
Very lightweight
Very good black level
No ghosting and staining artifacts during fast motion response time due to sub-millisecond.
A Wide range of vivid colors and it is the use of any background.
Disadvantages:
Can sustain screen burn-in.
Very hard and costly to manufacture at the present time.
Organic material used (in 2011) is subject to decay over time, making the display unusable after some time.
Light guns/pens cannot be used.
Practical using
The best screen to be used for outdoor is the LED screens, there is a large number of LED screen that is available in the market and the selection of this led screen will depend on the following points:
Determine the purpose for which you will use the LED display screen. Is it for outdoor or indoor video? On what occasion will it be used? Is it a sports event, a rally, a concert or assembly? Obviously, bigger screens with sharper resolutions are needed for outdoor events especially with a large crowd.
Consider the location where you are going to use the LED display screen, as well as the prevailing weather condition during the time of utility. In brightly-lit places, brightness of the LED display screen should be controlled. Likewise, you should pick bolder and larger font size for the text to make it more visible to
the audience.
Note how far or how near the audience is from the screen. If the audience is very near the LED display, make sure the screen is just the right size for viewing convenience. Big screens can hurt the eyes when it’s too close to the viewer in the same way that small screens can also damage the vision.
What type of messages are you going to display? If you want to include images, graphics or photos in your presentation you should choose a full color screen. You may specify with the manufacturer the type of images you will integrate in your ads. This way, the manufacturer can provide you with a LED display screen that has specifications to match your requirements.
An electronic display should be eye friendly. Therefore you should put it on a level where the viewers won’t have to roll their eyes or crane their necks just to have a glimpse of your ads. Establish the level or height of your LED display at a point where it can easily be viewed. It is important that you select the right size of screen to complement the height or level where it is to be mounted.
Choose a LED screen that can display the maximum combination of lines and text size. You should know how many rows of pixels are required for every line of text so you can estimate the size of the screen to accommodate ads that you are going to put on view.
Your LED screen should be easy to manage and must be supported by software for video playing to ensure hassle-free operation.
To select the screen that will be used if the project will be applied in any country this will depend on the support of that country and the offers that the company will offer to that country and the maintenance support also.
On the prototype of the project the used screen is not a problem .the LCD display is available so it will be used in the prototype but in the practical applications it will be replaced by the selected LED screen.
Chapter 6
Microprocessor
INTRODUCTION
The microprocessors are the most important services/machines we use every day are called computers. Before studying microprocessor we must to know what are precisely microprocessors and their compatible application. Microprocessor is an electronic component that role as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, provided that computational monitoring. Microprocessors are used in the other developed electronic systems, for example computer printers, automobiles, and aircraft, etc. Typical microprocessors merge arithmetic and logic functional units as well as the connected control logic, instruction processing circuitry, and a section of the memory hierarchy. The sections of the connection logic for the input/output (I/O) and memory subsystems may also be infused, permitting cheaper overall systems. While many microprocessors and single chipde signs, some high-rendering designs rely on a few chips to supply diverse functional units and comparatively huge caches.
When mutual with other incorporated circuits that supply storage for data and programs, often on a single semiconductor base to form a chip, the microprocessor becomes the heart of a small computer, or microcomputer. Microprocessors are classified by the semiconductor technology of their design (TTL, transistor-transistor logic; CMOS, complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor; or ECL, emitter-coupled logic), by the width of the data format (4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, or 64-bit) they process; and by their orders set (CISC, complex-instruction-set computer, or RISC, miniature orders-set computer; see RISC processor). TTL technology is most ordinarily used, while CMOS is favorite for portable computers and other battery-powered devices because of its low power exhaustion. ECL is used where the requirement for its major velocity offsets the fact that it consumes the most power. The 4-bit devices are cheap and perfect only for simple monitoring implementation; in general, the wider data format is faster and most expensive than other device. CISC processors which have 70 to several hundred instructions and orders are easier to program than RISC processors, but slower and more costly.
Microprocessors have been qualified in more different ways. They have been contrast with brain and heart of humans. Their process has been connected to a transition board and to the nervous system in an animal. They have often been named microcomputers. The original aim of the microprocessor was to monitoring store. That is what they were primarily designed to do, and what they do today. Specified a microprocessor is "a component that implements memory.
EMBEDDED CONTROLLER
Simply an embedded controller is a controller that is embedded in a greater system. One can define an embedded controller as a controller (or computer) that is embedded into some device for some purpose other than to provide general purpose computing.
Is an embedded controller is the same as a microcontroller? The answer is definitely no. One can state devices such as 68000, 32032, x86, Z80, and so on that are used as embedded controllers but they aren't microcontrollers.
We may be correct by pointing out that the controller is an integral part of the controls something (for example, control device such as a microwave oven car, braking or cruise missile). May be an integral part of the controller is also included on-chip resources such as controller. And are used widely microcontrollers and processors in embedded systems. Although microcontrollers and preferably more of the processors for embedded systems due to the low power consumption.
Programming Language
Introduction
The first resolution that we must to made when embarking on a new software project is what programming language to use for expansion. There are a lot of choices to use: C, C++, Java, C#, Pascal, Fortran, etc. There are many standards that the developer can use to narrow down the choices. However, a standard that always seems to be the high on the list of application performance. Performance must be always be amidst the highest, if not the absolute highest of standard is used to determine what is a language should be chosen to write an application.
Taking into account, to see which language offers the best performance we will write a number of algorithms in various programming languages. All performance tests were run on computers in the labs, and all source code was written in home.
The source code that lies within is not intended for commercialization or for production environments. Simply to get the timing information when improving a specific algorithm in different programming languages and seeing what the language is can produce the fastest time. No more and no less.
Languages Types
C++ language
Well-suited for large projects because it has an object- oriented structure. People can cooperate in a single program and dividing it into parts and small groups, or everyone who works in one part alone. The object-oriented structure Allowed re-using of the many symbols in order to reduce the time. C++ language is very effective despite the fact that a lot of C programmers will oppose this opinion
C language
It is a common language; it doesn't have the extra packaging of the object-oriented C++ and it particularly in game programming. Programmers used C because it makes the program fast and small compared with c++. you may wonder, however, If it is worth giving up re-use C + + for a slight increase in performance with C, especially when we use the C + + if necessary can be written in a manner Programming C.
Java language
Is suitable for large- scale projects because it has a structure of object- oriented. People can collaborate in a single program by breaking up into parts and a small group or even the work of one individual in each part. Object- oriented structure also allows for code re-use a lot, which can reduce development time. C + + language is also effective to some extent - despite the fact that many C programmers will disagree
Operating System
Overview
An operating system is system software that provides that an interface for the user to interact with the computer. Without Operating System a computer will be useless. The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the devices it manages behave in a flexible but predictable way.
Types of Operating System
Classification of operating systems on the basis of different features such as interaction with the user, how many tasks performed by them at one time, and how many processors they can support etc. On the basis of interaction with the user there are two types of operating system:
• GUI (Graphical User Interface) Operating system
• Command Line Operating System
Graphical User Interface Operating System
A GUI operating system provides an interfacing of graphical user to establish the computer with user communication. The user does not require a saved commands to perform, different tasks like moving a file, opening a document, printing a spreadsheet etc. The user uses graphical objects (e.g. icon, windows, button etc.) to execute several tasks. They just require recognizing different graphical objects and tasks that can be excute with them. Examples of GUI operating system are Windows, Linux, and
Solaris etc. [13]
Practical usage in Project
The selected operating System to be used is the windows embedded because of the ease of use and the large user base that help in developing applications easily also the available learning material and the good support for it all of this will help in development of the project. the selected language to be used is the C# language as the development of the project will run in windows operating system developed by the same company that develop the C# language this make the development easier, the software developed in this project will be able to connect to internet and with the control room also to display videos and images automatically as soon as they are available in the control room server. The hardware used to host the operating systems will be the embedded kit because of its features that is required by the project.
6.6 HTML Language
HTML is a language for describing web pages, stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.
HTML is a markup language which is a set of markup tags, this tags describe document content
HTML documents are also called web pages contain HTML tags and plain text.
6.6.1 HTML Tags
HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags, HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like normally come in pairs like and , the first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag. The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name where Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags. content
6.6.2 HTML Elements
"HTML tags" and "HTML elements" are often used to describe the same thing.
But strictly speaking, an HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags:
HTML Element:

This is a paragraph.


6.6.3 HTML Editors
Writing HTML Using Notepad or Text Edit. HTML can be edited by using a professional HTML editor like:
Adobe Dreamweaver
Microsoft Expression Web
Coffee Cup HTML Editor
However, for learning HTML we recommend a text editor like Notepad (PC) or Text Edit (Mac). We believe using a simple text editor is a good way to learn HTML.
Follow the 4 steps below to create your first web page with Notepad:
Step 1: Start Notepad
To start Notepad go to: start, all Programs, Accessories, Notepad.
Step 2: Edit Your HTML with Notepad
Type your HTML code into your Notepad:
Step 3: Save Your HTML
Select Save as. in Notepad's file menu. When you save an HTML file, you can use either the .htm or the .html file extension. There is no difference; it is entirely up to you.
Save the file in a folder that is easy to remember, like Highway.
Step 4: Run the HTML in Your Browser
Start your web browser and open your html file from the File, Open menu, or just browse the folder and double-click your HTML file.
6.6.4 Web Design Process
6.6.4.1 Site Details
The first step is to settle on a plan for our site. For most sites this is: the number of pages (and what those pages will be), an idea of how we'd like it to look, and if we want any additional galleries, slideshows, programming, search engine packages, or the ability to update your site our self.
6.6.4.2 Text, Content, and Materials for the site
Our site is ready to start work on, now we just need any text, images, logos, or other content we want on our site. It is also very helpful if we like to use a guideline. We do not have any limitations to how our site can look
6.6.4.3 Initial Design
Using all the information we collect, Feel free to make any changes to the design we wish. Once reviewed, work on the final site can begin.
6.6.4.4 Final Website Design
This is the stage where all the code, graphics, and images all come together to create the final site. From the initial design we will code entire site using to the very latest design standards, to be fast, work in all browsers, and search engine friendly. This is where the magic happens; we create all of our pages, link them all together, and do any programming work to bring it all together.
6.6.4.5 Final Review
Our website is now finished. We test it. We encourage you to go through the entire site, and if there is anything else you want to change simply feedback us with the changes, they'll be taken care of.
6.6.4.6 The Site Goes Live!
We upload our entire site to the web.

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