As a design for digital media student, I have always admired technology. This is due to the quick advancements in technology which has made tools readily available. With the use of e-libraries, journals, books, televised programs and internet articles I have been able to gather a variety of information.
After researching my initial topic, I decided that I would like to proceed with a question that relates to me. It has often been debated if you need any form of art skills to actually be a designer, or for my case a digital designer. With this I looked into just how some of the principles of art can create better graphic design which is when I created the question. Moving forward with more research I then considered "what is art?" With so many descriptions and such a variety of artists, how can we consider being influenced by art if we don't know the basic principles?
The internet had provided me with the most beneficial resources, because not only was I able to collate historical articles but I was also able to access new ones too. I believe this provided a great deal of importance because I was discussing art within pre-historic and modern terms.
List of Figures
In the art world there is common debate about what can be considered art. Since the grandmasters of art, critics have been comparing and contrasting artists a like and challenging them about their work. In the modern era you often find graphic designers trying to create similar artistic work through the influence of art and to attempting to use and inherit some of the principles.
In this dissertation I will be looking into what it is that people have considered as art and discuss from two sides of the table, including critics viewpoints. I will then pose a further question as to just how some of the principles of art help to influence graphic designers and artists today. As well as questioning why so many artists today look for an influence from their predecessors.
I will tackle the principles of art and what is needed to create art in the first chapter, then moving forward to what is graphic design and some of the principles. In chapter three, which is the art and design crossover, I will look into how art meets design in the pre-historic age and just how some of the techniques and meaning come to play. Further analyzing the modern era in chapter four I will be looking into the works of Pablo Picasso, the skills he used, the admirers, the critics and just how much of an influence he has had today; also bringing another viewpoint in by looking at what critics had thought of him then and now. I will stretch this study with Andy Warhol and look into how he has been accused of fraud and non original artwork because of the use of mechanics. Furthering the discussion, Thomas Kinkade and his artwork will follow focusing on how he has been criticized for using a mechanical and business-like approach to art (which people had considered kitsch) Also how he has continued to create what people have described as meaningless and tasteless artwork. Moving on, I will argue if art really can be what the viewer wants it to be. Drawing on the principles of "art can create better graphic design", I will then bring forward my personal opinion on what I think art is based on this study and just how it influences graphic design.
The Principles of Art
All visual arts from photography to paintings have a defined set of elements in common. These elements have a specific set of principles which act as a guide and directs the way to an ideal piece of artwork.
The elements of art are colour, line, shape, forms, texture, and positive or negative space (Getty, 1915[online]). These are "parts of an artwork that an artist plans" (Goshen, 1999 [online]). They provide the choices as to what the subject of the piece will be, what it may look like, and what it will represent. Each element is significantly important in creating the mood, the time and the subject of the artwork and each must be appreciated and understood for what it is and what it is not. The application to these techniques may vary in some way such as when someone is trying to build an aesthetic bridge and when someone else is trying to spray paint under a bridge, even though the two acts are related, they can be very different. The best way to understand how to apply the principles of art is to focus on how they are usually applied in the original visual arts form.
To briefly summarise the elements will allow for an understanding of their uses. Many elements are used to create a work of art. For example, lines, which may be explicit or implicit, are points which may move through space. Shape implies form and can be perceived as two-dimensions, while form implies depth, length and width which are perceived three-dimensionally. Colour is paramount and all colour originates from the three primary colours, red, blue, yellow, black and white. Colour also comes with three other properties, including hue, value and intensity. Value can relate to the level or lightness or darkness of colour in terms of contrast. Texture is another crucial element in creating art; it should have the tactile qualities of an object which can be actual or implied. Space can suggest scale or overlapping objects, amongst other things. Perspective is the representation of volume of a space or a three-dimensional object on a flat surface. Pattern is a repetitive reoccurrence of a design principle that can be exact or varied, that set ups a visual beat. Rhythm or movement is the proposal of motion through a variety of elements. Proportion is the size of the bond between parts for a whole and one another. Scale is to relay size to a constant. Balance is the feeling of equilibrium in a graphic or sculptural composition. Balance is can be often referred to as regular, irregular, or circular. Unity is attained when the components of a work of art are seen as pleasant, giving the work a sense of completion. Emphasis is the created centre of interest and which is basically the place in an artwork where your eye first glances at. All the principles of art tell the artists how best to use the elements but without an understanding of these elements the artist would be lost. (Getty, 1915[online])
What is Graphic Design?
Graphic Design is visual problem-solving with the use of text and/or graphic elements. It can include a systematic approach to solve a problem or to achieve certain goals with the use of images, symbols or words. It is visual communication and the aesthetic expression of concepts and ideas using various graphic elements and tools. The aim is to create something that is aesthetically pleasing to the eye and grabs the attention of the viewer. Although things can't just be visually appealing, they have to work well.
Similar to art elements, graphic design elements are very closely related and it can be argued whether both of them are indeed similar. It is said that graphic design is art without reason. (Brad. M, 2009 [online]) It can integrate image-based designs including photos, logos, illustrations, symbols and typography. Although some art elements are very similar, one exception in favour of Graphic Design is typography. Typography can convey type as a work of art on its own. The use of different fonts, alignments, size, spacing, and colour can add power to the message you are trying to articulate.
Graphic designers normally see themselves fundamentally as communicative artists whose purpose is to express ideas, concepts and types of information through graphic, written images and data using an assortment of techniques. This is an informative central and communicating aspect, which has allowed graphic designers to uncover a wide spectrum of media and to "work across quite a wide range of fields for companies and businesses, in books, publishing, signing and architecture, television etc."
As technology advances the roles of the Graphic Designer may change; the history of graphic design is consequently linked with technology that is readily available for the designer to portray his message. Graphic Designers are keen on new methods of developing and demonstrating their mood effectively.
However, many argue that while new technology has undeniably altered and shaped the function and meaning of graphic design, in addition to the creation of the Internet, which has extended the range and influence of graphic design, there remains a belief that design is still based on the essential principles of a creative image, text manipulation and composition. There are many designers who maintain that while change is representative of progress and increased production, the basic ideas of design and artistic aesthetics still inform and motivate their work. However, there are also those modern designers who insist that modern design work is radically different to the design work of the past simply due to the expanded possibilities that modern digital computers and software offer. (Adams, 2012, P.49)
Art and Design Crossover
This chapter will look into some of the principles of Graphic Design that cross over and relate to art and vice versa. It is the intention of this paper to examine one of the paintings by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio who is considered by many to be one of the greatest masters of all time. Robert Hughes, the critic, says that "There was art before him, and art after him, and they were not the same." This implies that Caravaggio changed style and technique for ever. It is the aim of this paper to consider some of the techniques and principles that Caravaggio uses in his painting of The Conversion on the Way to Damascus. The main point of this painting was to create a message which in itself could be considered to be artistically imaginative.
The Conversion on the Way to Damascus
Conversion on the Way to Damascus - Carvaggio (1600)
This is perhaps one of the most famous of Caravaggio’s paintings which applies the methods that the audience are familiar with especially the chiaroscuro which is one of the hallmarks of this artist. This subject is biblical and some of the techniques Caravaggio uses in this great painting exemplify how this artist portrays a message that is striking to the observer. As stated in Artble Techniques (Artble, 2012[online]) instead of introductory drawings, the artist would outline the first few layers of paint with the handle of his paintbrush, and then continue with the rest of his painting.
The painting gives a picture of the events that follow in Chapter 9 of Acts of the Apostles. In this painting, lighting and low horizon lines are utilized by Caravaggio to distort the perception of distance to the viewer. Use of foreshortening to create an illusion of an object that is receding in the background is emphasized and his main focal point is on action. In addition, he also makes use of chiaroscuro and to allow for/to create a point of view. A bright light strikes Saul on his journey to Damascus to conquer the Christian population. God utters to him, "Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?" (Toronto Bible, 1960 [online]) Following after these events, Paul is alleged to have seen Christ during the vision, and it’s on this foundation that he justifies his claim to be accepted as an Apostle (Paul). His use of realism with dramatization and dark scenery in appropriate places as well as his co-extensive space is noted in the painting. A sense of crisis occurs when Christ reveals himself to the world as is demonstrated by the light with its uneven shapes and rays. In the painting his process of art is notably talented.
During his life and for years after, Caravaggio's techniques and style were unsympathetically criticized for their inappropriate naturalism, overly dramatized effects and less stylish techniques. The painterly techniques used by Caravaggio in this picture are highlighted by the use of the composition. For example the painting is shown to have three characters, St. Paul, the horse and the groom. St Paul looks bemused and in shock due to the fact that Jesus has spoken to him in relation to the three characters who could be the Son, the Father and the Holy Spirit which is common in Christianity. He lays on the floor with his arms expressive and temporarily blinded. In this analysis as the bible does not mention St Paul falling from his horse, it was very clever to add it in the middle glancing over at his master confused in thought about what has just happened. St Paul who was strong-minded and proud on the top of his horse now lay on the floor blind and brought down by the power. The main focal point however is St Paul being on the floor, with the focus on the human aspect rather than the supernatural one.
Caravaggio’s painting is one which entices the audience and which has an incredible portrayal of the events which are going on in the work. This painting is seen as admirable when visualizing St. Paul falling from his horse with his arms raised and pointing to the sky increased the theatrical aspect is one that appeals to the viewers. His painting is a story which appeals to the viewer to convey their own meaning; His chiaroscuro, co-extensive space, no frescoes, no drawings painting is admirable and the visual quality of the subject is impressive as is everything else included making the painting a rather busy one in this respect.
Moving to the Modern Era
Two important artists who have been widely debated and considered to be masters of their skill, are Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol. The period is which Picasso lived greatly affected his work. Andy Warhol will be considered in relation to whether he was a graphic designer or an artist. It is one of the purposes of this paper to suggest that the time period between these two artists exemplifies the crossover between art and graphic design.
Pablo Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker and stage designer who had spent most of his time in France. He is considered one of the greatest and most influential artists of the twentieth century. Picasso had a different style compared to others and his paintings progressed with him through life. He had explored many methods, being a child prodigy in art. His earliest works would include a classical and academic style. His father had been an Art teacher, although people would say his Father was a terrible artist, they would commend him for his tutoring skills (Picass.org, 1901 [online]). Picasso had painted more realistically during his Blue and Rose periods- each of which were colour coordinated and characterized by paintings with blue and rose coloured hues. He then experimented with synthetic and analytical cubism. In those periods he would paint people and objects with abstract shapes - Triangles, squares and circles. As well as painting, Picasso also tested his creativity with different art forms such as sculpture.
It is considered by many art critics that one of Picasso’s works, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, was instrumental in replacing inserting Picasso as the leader of the modern art movement and replacing Matisse in this position. Picasso’s work has included many techniques that have portrayed emotion, from his ‘blue’ period which depicts sorrow and pain, to his ‘rose’ period when he was said to be in love. Evidently, his work has had a great impact in many types of ways- his use of blue after the death of his best friend was exclusive and he had tried to portray the meaning of sorrow in visual representation; arguably playing a part in defining the colour of sadness. When he fell in love at a later stage, that inspired a transformation in a change of colour from blue to rose.
Critics had become fiercer and newspapers had targeted the artist which is where the criticism began. The elevation of popularity and interest had captured so many people to analyze and make their own opinion. Picasso then had been criticized for producing and imitating his work in the later years, or for aiming to merely delight his audience.
People would wonder why Picasso had such a dramatic change from realistic beautiful art to more oddly shaped figures. Articles sprouted from The Independent (1994), and claims he was a fraud and that he had actually admitted to it in an interview were published. The Guardian Newspaper (2010) had snubbed the artist claiming that he was just "a big show-off".
Critics rushed in, and books attacking the artist were published. Paul Johnson, (Art: A New History, 2003) critiques Picasso by saying that he is a "fashion artist" to quote such "The bee that particularly gets in his bonnet is "modern art" Johnson had favoured critics like Ruskin and would back him when he would say that art should be "the perfect mirror of nature" (Ruskin, 1956) This would of course narrow down his pickings if you look at the last 150 years. He preferred to entirely overlook the pictorial art unique to our era - moving picture with the only exception of Walt Disney.
It is clear, however, that Picasso had an impact on many art forms especially with cubism. His influence has reached all items ranging from home decor to fashion and to a lot of new media. His stripe shirt was the new trend for everyone and was also used by Andy Warhol. He created the dove drawing which then moved on to become an international symbol of peace. A documentary by the BBC called Modern Masters (2011) covering the artist showed prestigious buildings like Museo Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain, influenced by Cubism. He had also influenced collage as an art form, created objects from everyday items and had a great impact on artists today for a style to follow and a reputation to uphold.
There is an ongoing debate even today, on just how influential Picasso's artwork has been. People argue that even in the last years of his career, works of power and tragedy continued to show from artistry.
Andy Warhol was an American artist and a leading figure in the visual art movement (Pop Art Warhols.com, 1950). The work he produced discovered the bond between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertising which was thriving by the 1960s. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous and sometimes was a contentious artist. His drawings were whimsical and his most famous works included pop art variations of the film star Marilyn Monroe - selling for as high as $28 million as published by The Independent (2013) The artist was as controversial as his pictures and, -his influence seemed to be everywhere. Although he is not regarded as a graphic designer, he did begin his career as one and his works blur the distinction between what is considered fine art and commercial art. Some critics argue that due to his work being so widely famous, that it did not actually make him any good.
Even at the age of 27 and making a $100 thousand a year, Andy Warhol still dreamt of being a cutting edge artist, which could show that he was still looking for respect. He once did ‘Brillo Boxes’ in which some critics thought they were a brilliant and ironic statement on modern consumer culture, while many others just thought it was ridiculous and quite possibly a fraud.
The strange interviews Andy gave did not clarify what his artwork was portraying and every time he would leave his work to the viewers own personal assumptions or ideas. An interview he did for Edie Sedgwick (Merv Griffin Show, 1965) showed just how vague he was, here is the dialogue:
Interviewer: Your art could not be described as original... would you agree with that?
Andy: Ah.. yes
Interviewer: Why do you agree?
Andy: Because it's not original
Interviewer: So you have copied a common item?
Interview: Why have you bothered to do that? Why not try something new?
Andy: Ah.. Because it's easier to do
Michael Jackson - Andy Warhol (1984)
When Andy had created his Michael Jackson print, it was hard to see the Fine Art ethics in the canvas. It was a printed Image of Michael Jackson with a few overlay brush strokes of his own. Some people had seen this as Art while others thought it was ludicrous. A Journal by the Huffington Post stated that Andy Warhol "damaged art and painting, and took it into the realm of a joke." (Seed, J. 2011) Other Documentaries featured Andy, such as The Mona Lisa Curse. (2008) presented by Robert Hughes would emphasize the hatred of Andy's work. Hughes had been the leader in this "Non-Warholian" art to quote:
"Hughes likes Non-Warholian art. Non-Warholian artists believe in the primacy of making things and employ tangible skills and ideas in the process. They also make their art without employing legions of paid assistants or relying on methods of mechanical reproduction."
(Seed, J. 2011)
Hughes did not believe that Warhol's work was original and he thought of it as a more mechanical approach to Art, rather than having original fine art creativity and feeling put into the creation. A lot of people would argue that he had not been an artist but a Graphic Designer instead. Most of Andy's work in the later years consisted of more mechanical uses, such as silk screen printing. He did not design the Original Campbell's soup cans - he had used one of the design in his screen prints. Another further break from traditional Art that Warhol employed was using motion to make art through motion screen shots. Most of the films he made are now a footprint to reality TV and he had believed that he could manufacture a "celebrity". He also believed that everyone will be famous for at least 15minutes (Michelson, A. 2001 P. 28)
Warhol had used a variety of techniques to create his work, including the creation of the blotted line technique. Popular today in Graphic Design, this technique consists of using shiny paper on the left and absorbent paper on the right. Andy would draw on the page that wouldn't absorb ink. Once the drawing was complete, he would bring the shiny paper over and press firmly to absorb the ink. Once opened, a creation with a blotted line would appear. He would use a variation of techniques such as Emphasis, where he would overlay brush strokes to an already printed image to bring out the image. Later in the years, this treatment would be picked up by graphic designers and some artists trying to produce art in the masses.
Even with all the critics Andy was booming at his peak, with the release of a magazine publishing series called 'Interview' that is still popular today. The Influence he had was great and It's amazing how popular some of the "Retro feel" is today, you find it on cards, clothing, decor and much more. Andy said in 1985 that 'good business is the best art' (Broughton D. P.165) A spokesman for the Tate Gallery, Nick Callaghan has said that even Warhol's TV ads should be seen as art because, he set a new standard and base that artists do not only have to make paintings but artists can now inhabit a whole different realm of activities and personas. Dennis Hopper who was an artist and actor and also a close friend of Warhol's stated that 'the artist is the art'. All this makes us wonder if Warhol's Art was actually a comment on Celebrity culture or was it just a part of it.
Thomas Kinkade & Meaningless Art
Thomas Kinkade was an American painter of popular realistic, rural and peaceful subjects. He is well known for his work being reproduced in masses via the Thomas Kinkade Company. The symbol he holds for himself is the "Painter of Light", and it is estimated that 1 in every 20 American homes own a copy of one of his paintings (Maura. J, 2012 )
Some people that taught Kinkade throughout his education included Glenn Wessels and Charles Bell. Wessels had encouraged Kinkade to attend university, after he had completed general education at California; Kinkade then transferred to the Art Centre College of Design in Pasadena.
In 1980 Kinkade had spent one summer travelling America with his University friend James Gurney. The two of them had stopped in New York, where they secured a contract with a publications company called Guptill to produce a manual handbook for sketching. A few years later in 1982 they produced "The Artists Guide to Sketching" (Kinkade, T. 2003) which was one of the best sellers for the publisher. The success of this had helped both of them to land a Career at Ralph Bakshi Studios creating Art precisely in the background for the 1983 film "Fire and Ice". Whilst Kinkade was working on the film he began to experiment and explore the depiction of light and fantasy worlds. After the film aired, Kinkade was known to be a reputable painter and had began selling his originals for thousands in California, United States.
The main techniques found in Kinkade paintings were his unique glowing highlights and saturated pastel colours, also known as the "Kinkade Glow Effect" (eHow.co.uk, 1950 [online]) shown in idealistic American scenery. His work would often convey rural, peaceful settings such as streams, gardens, lighthouses, stone cottages and main streets. His hometown in Placerville was the inspiration of many of his snow and street scenes. Kinkade was a devoted Christian and he would also add religious themes, such as the Christian cross and churches in his work.
Kinkade had mentioned he was emphasizing the importance of simple pleasures and the value of it. He said his main aim was to convey and communicate inspirational, new-faith messages and meaning through his work. Being a Christian, he had stated that most of his inspiration had come from Christianity and it also showed in his work; as some work had marked bible chapters. His aim was to reach out to people of all faiths, and with him to bring peace, harmony and joyfulness into their lives via the work he produced.
The fine art or traditional art world would distinguish Kinkade’s work as a little more commercially successful Kitsch (a style In which art or design is produced in mass) (Orlean, S. 2012) Kinkade had received criticism as expected in the Art world, for the way in which he sold his artwork to the way it was produced. He would sell them on Home Shopping networks, where others would comment on his work as merely tasteless without meaning. Critics would also describe his work as chocolate box art and mall art.
However this led to controversy, the production method Kinkade had used was challenged and to quote from Laura Miller
" The novel, first in a series, was produced much as his paintings are: by a semi-industrial process in which low-level apprentices embellish a prefab base provided by Kinkade." (Miller, L. 2012).
Kinkade was reported to have designed and painted his works which were then moved on to the mass stages of producing prints. It was assumed that he had contributed to most of the original and conceptual work that was produced. However, it was also noted that he employed a number of assistants for the studio to help create multiple copies of the prints. It was believed that Kinkade had designed and also painted his original paintings, however the ones collectors were likely to own would be printed in the factory and overlaid by a studio assistant with some skill in brush strokes.
After this people became wary of Kinkade and his "deceit" (Christian News, 2009 [online]) In an interview in 2001 Kinkade had stated that he was the most controversial artist in the world - which I think was a bold statement considering the works of Andy Warhol. (Mhlearningsolutions, 2008 [online])
Kinkade often received criticism over his work , he was "loved by man but loathed by art critics" published the Los Angeles Times (2012). Art critics like Christopher Knight had described his paintings to be "schlocky"
Chronicle's Kenneth Baker had stated that Kinkade "has a vocabulary, as most painters do... It's a vocabulary of formulas, unfortunately"
Descriptions such as "Paintings so awful they must be seen to be believed" (Heath, J. 2005, P. 124)
" A usual Kinkade painting featured a cottage of such cosiness as to seem truly menacing, a possible trap to attract Hansel and Gretel." (Didion, J. 2004, P. 73)
In 2006 the Artist was accused of ruthless practices, in which a true artist would not undergo; his business conduct was criticized by the way he marketed and made his products. Was he a true artist that upheld the reputation of others? or was he just a good business man with no meaning or feeling in his paintings?
His known set called the "Disney Dreams Collection" consists of 14 paintings taken from the digital animation films, some could say he had adapted the principles of graphic design and used them to create what is known as traditional art. Many Journals published claimed Kinkade had no skill and that his Disney collection was merely a copy from the Graphic Novels and Films (Duggan, B, 2010). They had claimed that he had used some of the elements and creativity in the film to recreate what could arguably be called Art.
But after all this controversy people would spark such questions; Did he create original art? Was he a copycat? We're his methods used too mechanical? or was he just a good businessman?
After numerous years of 'hateful' attacks Kinkade had drove into despair, he was constantly questioning whether he was a true artist and wondered why people had hated him so much. On April 6 the Daily Mail (2012) had published a story on him:
Driven to despair by his critics: 'Painter of light' artist died after suffering years of 'hateful' attacks on his work, devastated family reveals.
Since the death of Kinkade , the official Thomas Kinkade foundation had to acknowledge the "Studio Artists" and had claimed that there would be new images in Thomas Kinkade style. The new prints would include the studio name rather than the bible verses Thomas Kinkade had originally put. It has still not been clear yet whether Kinkade paintings were painted by others while being marketed and sold as handwork originals, but it does bring into question whether Kinkade had been producing thoughtful artwork. It also brings into question, if an Artist doesn't care for their art can it no longer be called Art because it is meaningless?
Mr. Kinkade showed little artist motivation behind his work and never sought to capture broader social truths. Because Kinkade had been a mass producing artist, he had inspired anger from people criticizing his work as schlock and calling him an imposter, especially with his claims that his work had some resale value which could be considered for the originals but for the prints some may argue valueless?
However, he had gathered a huge following of people that admired his work despite being Kitsch or having an ersatz nature. Critics can argue that you cannot compare Kinkade between what are considered "real" artists. By knowing this Information could it be wrong to admire Kinkade? Some say yes, yet others may say he is not an Artist but rather a good business man and a self-promoter who had a products to sell; his style was considered having no attention and being focused mainly on the profits, otherwise he might of painted something else. His paintings did not give the viewer an insight to the way he lived his life, could this still be considered art? He focused on Profit and did not provide meaning, if true and you were to add the two points up this could be known as futile.
Seeing Kinkade through his artwork, you would find that there is not enough to say you hate or love the man himself. There is no artistic value in his work and therefore can lead us to question once again if this was really art itself?
All works show that design is intrinsically something artistic with graphic design part of the whole proceedings. Graphic design includes several aspects which are similar to art especially when it comes to the shading of objects. Art can be seen in many different ways but is obviously principally an expression of a form or a portrayal of an idea. There are various forms in which artistic passions derives from such as ideas in a painting, a sculpture or another medium (Heidigger, 2001). However art can also be seen as different in the sense that it can exhort passion for a particular subject. Art can also be seen as a means to an end especially when it is portrayed in a different format or it is used to inspire a movement, for example (Lord, C, 2012 [online]). Art is also an expression of form and feeling and can be used to describe a particular moment in someone’s life accordingly.
After an analysis of the previous artists, the main question that has been brought forward is what can we consider art? and Just how can the principles of new age Graphic Design be used to create art? With graphic communication and knowledgeable people, one can know that applying the use of art elements can create better graphic design, yet what can we describe as art? Many successful artists and designers broke some of the rules, but they fully understood the rules before breaking them.
As studied previously Picassos work is now being used as an influence for all, his works influence a wide range of products that instantly have recognition in terms of his style and message. The use of his elements and style is widely copied. The blue and rose periods are used as an influence in designs throughout magazines, videos and other mediums. If a graphic designer were to create a piece based on the old masters in today's society would we consider this art or just copying them?
People have been trying to communicate with images and speech since countless years ago. This ancient artwork tells stories, and communicates important lessons. So it would be misconception to believe graphic communication is a recent phenomena. However, it has become increasingly defined and technical over the last few years. There was never before an era in which to be recognized as a good communicative artist one needed a degree and for today, a broadband connection. Of course, one must understand that there are many types of communicative art today, all of which combine basic design principles with messages and even words. Sculpture, poetry, theatre design and production, painting, advertising art, performance art, photography, architecture. The principle of communication establishes that the modern era is strictly visual art and more directly, graphic design. Yet as the computer age has triumphed, we must see that technology has changed the face of art. There are programs that can do in an instant what a single artist might take days to do manually. The possibilities for renovation and creation are endless, limited only by people. How much can we imagine? How far will out knowledge of let us go? These are the questions of today. Unfortunately, too many artists remain afraid of the Internet and computerized design, and are afraid it will strip them of the original desire and creation of physical, non-digital art. Even more tragically, many computer ‘geeks’ and designers and executives dismiss real, "high" art as being unrelated to their work. Web designers usually will have some sort of technical degree rather than an art degree. However, it seems evident that if the long history of communication has taught us anything about how to get ideas across visually, these lessons will be found in the root science of traditional art. Thus the best Graphic Design will be founded on the principles of art, and even recognized as art itself.
All principles found in Art can aid the creation of graphic design. Both have near enough the exact same elements in common with the exception of typography etc. The principles of Art can assist in many ways and they help to create aseptically pleasing graphic design, it can tell a story or portray a meaning. From a green go sign to a blue cartoon portraying sadness; all these are an influence to graphic design. Looking back previously at an artist like Andy Warhol who was changing to a more mechanical approach of development and using technology to create art or graphic design. Does this mean the principles are the exact same?
The effect and hype on both of the types of work in art or graphic design can be similar. Traditional artists like Picasso to Andy Warhol both having an influence, both shocking the world yet both having completely different methods. Does this mean Art is not the same thing? Can we say art is whatever the human mind portrays it to be?
The perfect piece of graphic design would include art elements and would incorporate most of the elements of design. It would be balanced, not just weighted, It would take into account both the visual centre and the relative proportion of important factors, using contrast colour set-offs. It would have rhythm. There would be white space, but only to draw our attention to elements that are present. There would be real or apparent motion. Above all, there would be unity, thematically, visually, tonally, and typographically. Every element would be placed where it was for a very specific reason, and nothing would appear in the design if it was not needed nor would it not if it was indeed needed.
One more decision would have to be made: who would build it? A technician? A visual artist? A machine? The user? or would there truly be a new sort of artist, an Internet artist, who used all the tools at his command, technically and artistically, to make truly communicative designs?
Now that we have analyzed and assessed what we can consider to be 'Art' and how it Influences Graphic Design. Let me suggest that no one can define art, art changes as the world changes as our time changes and because there are so many different cultures it cannot merely be defined. By what we have studied I've learned that if you try to limit art, you stop the artist from breaking the boundaries, it cannot be confined and it cannot be defined. You can have disciplines that will follow like painting, sculpture, drawing, architecture, printmaking, collage, etc. But there are movements in Art history for example Cubism as we have studied and abstract expressionism, realism and so on. Art itself changes so fast that it is difficult to understand and follow due to the ability and development of a prospective artist. Anything we previously considered kitsch or crafty is now being considered as Art itself. The area of that distinction is blurring, and why you may ask? Because of our culture, the things of society today we hold as significant. The advancement of technology has a lot to do with the change of Art itself. I am concluding that there is no definition of Art crucially because of the way we are advancing in time, the changes in society and the difference in our culture. I can see it as a good thing, because if were not allowed to change as artists and grow then there would not be a lot of landmarks like Cubism. The only way to describe it is if something has a meaning regardless of its shape or form, you can consider it art. As quoted "The artist is art itself".
For the Influence on creating better Graphic designs with Art Principles in my opinion, graphic designers create art already, for all we know graphic design is an art, and one of the differences is that it is created for a client. They have a purpose to create art yet there's almost a reason to create graphic design. It has a reason as does art. Artists create pieces of art not because it is needed but because it is a desire, a desire to express of feeling. Creative art is just that. Graphic Design is art with a reason, a use and purpose, whether it be in furniture, advertising, entertainment or more, there is always a use, even if the use is to display a message to the end user. Fine art is purely expression, whether it can be realized fully or partially, it is created for observing only. Nobody uses a painting or sculpture for a purpose, it's to be viewed and critiqued. While fine art is planned to be looked at for the viewers pleasure (In most cases), emphasizing that graphic design once again is intended to be used. One of them has a clear goal, whilst the other does not. One follows the core and strict principles while the other is more fluid in terms of the principles and rules. It is freedom.
Although we know that all creative pieces in both art and graphic design are made with some sort of guideline, whether it is conscience or not. Both fine art and graphic design come from the same place. The elements and aesthetics are alike and are considered the same, they follow the same principles from an internal viewpoint of knowing or even not knowing what will work and what wont when it comes to producing something aesthetically pleasing. Bad Graphic Design doesn't work nor does bad art. What makes Art and Graphic Design work from the influence of it, it's plain and simple... aesthetics. So basically my viewpoint is that they aren't that different and they each influence one another. I believe fine artists should study graphic design whilst graphic designers should study fine art. The main difference is not the creation but the aim of the final piece, it does not do any good at all to dismiss one another. Therefore artists should stay focused on some of the design principles and designers alike should stay focused on art, they must both understand that they are both artists.