Analytical Approach Which Is Subjectively Construction Essay

Published: 2021-06-25 11:30:06
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Contents
Acknowledgements 6
Abstract 7
Introduction 8
1.0 Introduction 9
1.1 Aim 10
1.2 Objectives 10
1.3 Scope 11
1.4 Research Significance 12
1.5 Need for the Research 12
1.6 Research Limitations 13
Research Methodology 14
2.0 History of Concrete 15
2.1 Fibre Reinforced Concrete History 16
2.2 Cement 17
2.3 Aggregates 17
2.4 Fibre Types 18
2.4.1 Glass 18
2.4.2 Steel Fibre 18
2.4.3 Natural Fibre 19
2.5 History of Polypropylene Fibre 19
2.6 Deformation 20
2.7 Creep 20
2.8 Shrinkage 20
Methodology 21
3.0 Methodology 22
3.1 Moisture test coarse and fine aggregates 22
3.2 Sieve Test 24
3.3 Comparing the Sieve Tests 26
3.4 Casting 27
3.5 Produce for specimen 28
3.6 Casting Calculation 30
3.7 Casting the specimen 30
3.8 Curing the concrete 31
Making of The Cast/Specimen 32
4.0 Casting No 1 - 0% Fibre Casting 33
4.1 Casting No 2 - 3% Polypropylene Beam Casting 34
4.2 Casting No3 - 0.3% Polypropylene Beam Casting 35
4.3 Casting No 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre Casting 36
4.4 Casting No 5 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre Casting 36
4.5 Casting No6 - 1% Polypropylene Fibre Casting 37
Testing The Specimen 38
Cubes 38
5.0 Compressive Test on The Cubes 39
5.1 Cube Test 1 - 0% Fibre 40
5.2 Cube Test 2 - 3% Polypropylene Fibre 41
5.3 Cube Test 3 - 0.3% Polypropylene 42
5.4 Cube Test 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre 43
5.5 Cube Test 5 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre 44
5.6 Cube Test 6 - 1% Polypropylene Fibre 45
Testing The Specimen 46
Beams 46
6.0 Beam Test 1 - 0% Fibre 47
6.1 Beam Test 2 - 0.3% Polypropylene Fibre 48
6.2 Beam Test 3 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre 49
6.3 Beam Test 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre 50
6.4 Beam Test 5 - 3% Steel Fibre 51
Analysis Of Data 53
7.0 Analyzing the Tests 54
7.1 Problems Faced When Preparing the Specimen 54
Conclusion 55
8.0 Conclusion and Evaluation 56
References 58
9.0 Bibliography 59
Annex 60
Table Of Figures
Figure 1 Olive View Hospital 1971 9
Figure 2 Sample of Coarse Aggregate 22
Figure 3 Samples of Fine Aggregate and Oven 23
Figure 4 Fine Aggregate Sieve Sizes 24
Figure 5 Coarse Aggregate Sieve Sizes 25
Figure 6 Fine Aggregates Passing Through Percentage 25
Figure 7 Coarse Aggregate Passing Through Percentage 27
Figure 8 Sieve Test Shaking Table 27
Figure 9 Polypropylene Fibre 28
Figure 10 Steel Fibre 28
Figure 11 Concrete Mixture 28
Figure 12 Sample of Three Steel Moulds 29
Figure 13 Tension Beam Wooden Mould 29
Figure 14 Plain Concrete Casting 33
Figure 15 3% Polypropylene Beam Casting 34
Figure 16 0.3 % Polypropylene Beam casting 35
Figure 17 A Cube Compression Test 39
Figure 18 A Beam Crack Position 54
Table Of Tables
Table 1 Moisture Content Test Result For Coarse Aggregate 9
Table 2 Moisture Content Test Result For Fine Aggregate 24
Table 3 Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates 24
Table 4 Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregates 25
Table 5 Mixture Ratio 30
Table 6 Cube Test 0% Fibre 40
Table 7 Cube Test 0% Fibre Stress/ Time 40
Table 8 Cube Test 3% Polypropylene Fibre 41
Table 9 Cube Test 3% Polypropylene Fibre Stress/ Time 41
Table 10 Cube Test 0.3% Polypropylene Fibre 42
Table 11 Cube Test 0.3% Polypropylene Fibre Stress/ Time 42
Table 12 Cube Test 0.5% Steel Fibre 43
Table 13 Cube Test 0.5% Steel Fibre Stress/ Time 43
Table 14 Cube Test 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre 44
Table 15 Cube Test 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre Stress/ Time 44
Table 16 Cube Test 1% Polypropylene Fibre 45
Table 17 Cube Test 1% Polypropylene Fibre Stress/ Time 45
Table 18 Fmax Beam 52
Table 19 Fmax Cube 52

Acknowledgements

Firstly I would like to thank Dr. Robert Xiao who has provided me with help and guidance throughout this project and enabled me to complete and carry out my experimentation to the best of my abilities. I would also like to thank Mr. Paul who aided me in producing the concrete mix designs. Finally I would like to thank Catherine the lab technicians, for having the patience and time to make sure that I carried out my experimentation correctly.
Abstract

A fabricated concrete is a type of material, which essentially requires to be strengthened in tension to attain the structural requirements of construction. Many new design techniques were formulated and proposed for the purpose of strengthening the concrete. Fibre reinforcement is the past and present decades popularly used fabrication method popularly introduced but rarely used as a common guideline has not been introduced for the fibre reinforcement. The significant benefits of using fibre in concrete are to improvised crack control and the dominant possibility of slender designs than the regular structures. The crack control is also a phenomenon wherein the characteristics are dependent on the factors like the quantity of fibre added which in turn gives more durability for the substance. In the past many types of fibre were used to reinforce brittle or fragile materials. Straw was traditionally used to reinforce sun-baked bricks likewise to strengthen concrete materials fibre materials are used for strengthening purpose. In this research steel and polypropylene type of fibre are used for strengthening the concrete material.
Introduction
Chapter 1
1.0 Introduction
With sustainability being such a high priority subject within the construction industry, there have been huge pressure on the producers of concrete to develop more suitable techniques. The techniques and the method utilised will have to increase the strength of the concrete mixture. In this research I have researched about two materials that could be used as a future concrete mixture. They are steel and polypropylene fibre. Steel have been used in the concrete development for decades and is still in use in the construction industry. Steel aggregates are brittle and are more prone to cracks in the long term. As the industry leads to developments of huge buildings, there is need for research in different types of concrete mixture. This will not only increase the strength of the buildings but also this would reduce the cost and the failure of the mechanical structural integrity. According to the report produced by the civil engineering portal, there have been so many disasters in the past due to structural failure due to concrete. Concrete has a major pivotal role in the construction industry and thus more research have to be done on the different types of concrete mixture. Concrete is a simple mixture containing, sand, cement, aggregate and water. Concert is also have minimum wastage. The crushed aggregates from an old building can be used for the new mixture. The main advantage of the concept is that it more flexible and so can be made into the desired shape as long as a mould could be made for that shape.(Portal)
The Figure 1 shows the damage and the brittleness of the steel based concrete. Although this damage was caused due to earthquake, the figure 1 shows how brittleness of the concrete due to a building shakeup. Some famous buildings and bridges have also have faced the same consequences.
1.1 Aim
To design, analyse and evaluate the structure and characteristics of Fibre reinforced concrete using direct tension evaluation.
1.2 Objectives
The objective of the research is to analyse, evaluate and investigate experimentally the behaviour and nature of Steel and Polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete by implementing the direct tension test. This hybrid reinforcement of concrete would annihilate the troubles related to steel erosion while rendering the required firmness, required ductility and stiffness. The following are the core objectives demonstrated for the purpose of the research study.
The main objective of the study is to gather a better understanding of the characteristics and behaviour of the high strength steel and polypropylene reinforced fibre concrete when subjected to direct tension.
To determine the impact of the steel and polypropylene fibres input on the properties of a plain concrete. Some of the properties which are analysed for evaluation purpose are elasticity, toughness, compressive strength and the workability ratio.
To compare and study the containing or the bearing capacity, the manner of failures of the blocks or slabs with and without the usage of the fibre reinforcement.
To compare the failure modes of the concrete, the strength productions employed on the slab and exclusively compare the measured values to the theoretically estimated values.
Hence the overall research plan comprises of the production of design plans for steel and polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete, the lab demonstrations of the direct tension implemented on the steel and polypropylene reinforced fibres, testing the durability and the tensile nature of the reinforced concrete slabs and finally analysing the final structure for the flexible characteristics of the finally furnished concrete beams.
1.3 Scope
The scope of the study comprises of an experimental investigation and theoretical analysis wherein the materials are confined to the usage of plain concrete with steel and polypropylene fibres, fabricated mixture proportions by mixing Portland cement, fine and coarse aggregates and also water. Steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are added for the production of the steel fibre reinforced concrete and polypropylene reinforced concrete mixture. The fibres are constrained to steel and polypropylene types only for better evaluation and analysis. Also the research focuses on analysing the direct tension of the slab before and after the reinforcement of the fibres. Direct tension is none other than the tensile stress. This is done by pulling the ends of the materials from both ends with aid of tensile calculating machines. Once the ends are pulled the length of the material increased is calculated and using this the stress can be calculated. Thai research also focuses on the compressive strength. The determine the compressive strength is the main measure that tells the structural quality of the concrete. Although the tensile strength is not normally designed to tell the direct tension. The use of the tensile testing id to show an estimate at what load will a crack develop. The scope of the study is further extended to demonstrate an analytical approach to estimate the direct tension during the fabrication process. Oasys is the computer application software module which is implemented in the research. Oasys is the structural design software for analysing and design reinforcing the concrete slabs. (Foundation)1.4 Research Significance
The basic objective of the research study is to analyse the features of the steel and polypropylene fibre reinforced polymers tendons implemented to pretension the concrete beams. Estimation of the transfer and growth lengths is the core fundamental requirements for the design and subjective performance of the pretension and pre-stressed concrete constituents. This minor information or the data constituents are significant for the development under the ACI committee guidelines for concrete structures which are reinforced by fibre elements. The various guidelines which are necessarily subjected are:
Estimate experimentally the transfer and development lengths of the concrete bars and the fibre strands.
Investigate the results of the following parameters on the characteristics of the fibre reinforced concrete slabs.
Diameter of reinforcement.
Pre-stress measure
The type of reinforcement fibre – Steel and Polypropylene.
Time-dependent effect
The before and after strength of the concrete.
The confinement developed as a result of the reinforcement.
Demonstrate the experimental and rational structures for patterning reasons to predetermine the tensile and flexure bond lengths of the concrete reinforced beams.
1.5 Need for the Research
The rapid advancement in the building, pavement and construction in the recent years demands essential modifications to the traditional material mixtures to handle the new threats and issues in construction. Fibre reinforcement of the concrete structures can significantly improvise the engineering characteristics of the concrete leading to increased performance and longevity under pressure and external load.
Irrespective of the extended range of practical lab information available, the data is segregated and the research is concentrated on the fibres and the concrete as materials rather than estimating them mere applications as comprehensive tests are more practical giving a wider idea about the material under study. They are also providing sophisticated and valuable information for the field of construction. Also in this study reliable tests are conducted to elucidate and handle issues regarding the tensile nature and the deformation features of the concrete beam structures with the fibres. Hence this research study is essential as corresponding experimental tests, analysis and investigation is not broadly available in this field. Also having fibre reinforced concrete saves thousand of lives caused by minor earthquakes. A small crack in the concrete leads to the whole structure being damaged and may take lives. So by reinforcing the concrete this may survive small earthquakes. This will be very helpful in places that are affected with earthquakes. Also in the western world as the building grows toward the sky, more and more concrete are being used, therefore by reinforcing the concrete will make the building stronger.
1.6 Research Limitations
There were two obvious limitations which are evident while preceding the research and they are scale and space limitation. Developing a complete flexed model is not manageable for design or testing purpose. The limitation owing to constrained lab space at the University. Thereby the only option and instruments available for this research is for testing a slab of limited diameter and size but this is a commonly done procedure by the lab testers and researchers as the outcomes are considerably good and accurate. The size of the beam and the cube should not cause a problem as the calculation is based on the density and the proportion of the materials used in the mixture. Therefore the results obtained in the test should also reflect the final outcome in the real world scenario.

Research Methodology
chapter 2

For the purpose of the research and the lab test, two approaches were subjectively adopted to compare the advantages and disadvantages of fibre reinforced concrete and plain concrete.
Experimental Lab Analysis
Analytical approach which is subjectively a theoretical approach.2.0 History of Concrete
Concrete’s history can be estimated over the B.C with continuous development, refinement and construction of various empires and decades of innovation. Evidence of presence of natural cement compound has been invented which is a mixture of limestone and oil shale in the city of Israel during 12,000,000 B.C. The ancient Greeks made use of the lime mortars while constructing and building empires. The Romans on the other hand made use of the pozzolana cement during 476 AD for building their structures. The popular structures include the Pantheon, Bath of Caracalla and Coliseum. They also utilised horsehair which is called polypropylene today to minimise shrinkage in the in mortars composition of sand, hot lime, water and minute gravels. The famous ‘Aqar Quf’, a high hill located near Baghdad was constructed using bricks which were sun burnt and baked. During 3000 BC the Chinese made use of cementation compositions while building the Great Wall and utilised bamboo for holding the boats. Asbestos was used to reinforce the clay posts in past years for concrete strengthening.
Concrete is a mix of cement, water and aggregates. Mostly additional mixtures are utilised to fasten or reduce the reaction on the concrete. In other terms admixtures or composition mixtures are used to obtain the actual firmness or strength over particular days and some others are utilised to reduce the shrinkage. Other particles like the glass beads, rubber particles and other compositions for suiting the purpose. For instance glass bead is used in the micro concrete to concentrically reinforce the stress strain graph and prototype graph in the micro concrete mixture. The concrete properties are mainly in the type of aggregate, the cement used the ratio of the cement and the aggregate composition, the cement and the water ratio.
A comprehension of the deformation of the concrete is significant in both the development and building times of the civil engineering projects. The two main deformation processes are the shrinkage and the creep which determines the lifetime of the concrete. Hence the advantages and the disadvantages of concrete must be enlisted before starting a construction using concrete. A complete analysis of the concrete must be acknowledged if the construction is done using concrete. Other main properties of concrete which is critical are strength, tensile strength and the compressive strength.
2.1 Fibre Reinforced Concrete History
In a concrete the presence of cracks and flaws are inevitable and the damage spreads when the structure is subjected to stress and force. In general the concrete is firm while compressed and fragile during tension. The basic reason for utilising reinforcement in concrete is to obtain in the shocks, the tensile pressures and hence the cracks which ultimately come up in the structures do not necessarily weaken the structure. The properties have caused limitations while implementing concrete during construction. Hence by adding fibres to the concrete mixture the tensile strength of the concrete can be increased.
The history of utilising fibres in the concrete mixtures ranges back to the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians started building their structures. They made use of the marl clay or the mud from the Nile by mixing the clay with straw to make mortars for constructing structures and building constructions Hence straw is a natural fibre with minimum amount of carbon and even in UK where it is still used a construction material. In the Holloway research, asbestos fibres were commercially used in the fibre reinforced concrete composition for the purpose of building structures like cladding and using it as a fireproof material.
Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is a compound composition made of coarse aggregate and water by adding fibres and the strength of material depends on the fibre type, the concentration and physical orientation.
2.2 Cement
The primary composition for concrete is the cement. The most popularly used cement variety is the Portland cement. The influence of the concrete properties is checked by using the characteristics like compressive, tensile strength, the firmness and the shrinkage. The shrinkage part of the concrete constitutes the paste. This type of concrete is the shrinkage.
2.3 Aggregates
By using aggregates in the mass the stability and the durability of the concrete is considerably increased. It is economic to use and is cheaper to use when more aggregate is used in the mixing ratio. To obtain best results graded aggregate must be employed as it would enable the cement with the property of interlocking and owing to its varied chemical property to differing degrees wherein the properties of concrete can be exhibited in plastic and also in hardened states. The main property which influences the concrete workability is the shape and the cement aggregate ratio.
The concrete performance is affected significantly by the properties of the aggregate like strength, deformation, tensile nature, the chemical nature, the relative density. The aggregates toughness or the strength which is commonly employed is from 70Nmm-2 to 350Nmm-2. And this strength does not exceed the maximum limit between 80Nmm-2 it common strength is from 30Nmm-2. Various aggregate types have varying properties towards concrete.
In the construction across the world normal aggregate is most commonly used across the world. This type of concrete has a density range of 2300Kgm-3 to 2500Kgm-3 with average or normal aggregates. The features or the characteristics of the aggregates depend on composition, grain shape and size and also the texture. The aggregate which comes under the sand stone category forms a type of concrete with a massive drying shrinkage due to their high porosity.
When considering a radiation effect and the economic using property of its heavy weight as this heavy weight is essential for protection from the hazardous rays like the X-rays, UV rays and harmful rays. It is widely used for weight coating the underground pipelines. This type of heavy weight concrete usually comes with a density range of 4000Kgm-3 to 8500Kgm-3 with varying proportions of various types of heavy aggregates.
In the manufacture of pre-cast concrete structures light weight aggregates are employed. In the Uk construction industry these types of light weight aggregates are employed. This type of aggregates has the property of resisting fire (Jackson & Dhahir, 1996).
2.4 Fibre Types
2.4.1 Glass
Based on the chemical properties this type of fibre was deployed as an alkali reactive in the Portland cement. The property of the fibre is exploited by the alkali composition in the cement. The alkali resistant glass was produced by with the element Zirconia and this research was done by Dr. A.J. Majumdar at the Building Research located at the United Kingdom. The glass fibre elements have the property of losing its strength and its ductile nature when it is exposed to the external environment. The production of the glass reinforced or glass mixed composition of employs the alkali fibre.
2.4.2 Steel Fibre
The reinforcement of fibre had its invent from the 1900 and concrete reinforcement with steel also had its advent from the same time. The property of the steel fibre reinforced concrete was basically under study and investigation for years in the past from 1950’s. After its long research the employment of steel became a reality and was widely deployed and steel was popularly used in comparison to other products.
2.4.3 Natural Fibre
These are fibre which is produced by man at an economical rate where technology and energy is deployed at a lower cost. The deployment of these products is used from the past in the developed countries when the economy of usage required was very less or when the regular construction materials are unavailable for immediate use. One of the examples for the usage of such material is the sisal fibre. The sisal fibre is employed in various applications like tanks, silos, pipes and so on. Other forms or types of natural fibre are wood cellulose fibre and is used for building structure at an economically low rate. Some of these natural fibres are used for construction applications like corrugated sheets, economic flats and so on. Moreover these natural fibres are further sub divided into processed and unprocessed types. The processed type of fibre has its source from wood cellulose whereas the latter has many sources like the coconut hair, wood, sugarcane base and so on.
2.5 History of Polypropylene Fibre
The introduction of polypropylene fibre has its history from the 1960’s. The poor features of the polypropylene fibre engaged with extensively combustible, and with low melting point and elasticity factors are the known disadvantages of the polypropylene fibres. Also the nature of the polypropylene fibre is hydrophobic. The extended usage of this type of fibre will make it difficult for mixing the concrete as these types of fibres have the nature of engraving around the edges of the mixer and also possess inflexible nature.
Polypropylene fibre has the following features. They have a plastic stress-strain relationship but they have tough materials with the characteristics of a low tensile nature. It has been found that the usage of the polypropylene fibre has more strength when fibre is used up to 12 percentages and this research has been successfully posted in the cement and concrete institute. By using polypropylene the reduced shrinkage nature of the plastic with restrained plastic can be stained when the fibre percentage is 0.1 to 0.3.
2.6 Deformation
In general concrete undergoes two basic types of deformation, the creep and the shrinkage. The variation in the concrete volume in contact of a permanent load is called as creep. The minimisation of the concrete volume by minimising the hydro nature owing to various reasons is called as Shrinkage. For the reason of the study Creep is studied and demonstrated as below.
2.7 Creep
When concrete is entitled in constant pressure or load it is subjected to immediate deformation. This type of deformation is called as elastic deformation. This structure or situation of concrete occurs when the deformation is called as the creep. This situation of creeping continues with time and the load or the pressure with the decreasing time. When the pressure is removed it ultimately leads to minimised strain and its slowly followed or progressed by minimised strained with the release of the load and this latter process is called as the creep recovery. Creep has the characteristics behaviour of plastic and it cannot be recovered after the creep recovery process. The creep nature and conditions is also affected by the external environment, climatic conditions and when the external conditions are adverse the creep density is more.
2.8 Shrinkage
Shrinkage is a condition which occurs when there is water evaporation and the basic chemical nature or composition of the concrete nature either in the fresh stage or when it is hardened which ultimately causes the concrete to lose volume from its original form. This condition is called as shrinkage. Shrinkage has its effect on various aspects of construction and with the formation of tensile stress it develops in the concrete. The construction can accept certain forms of shrinkage but at high shrinkage it causes unavoidable damage. Hence this is one of the major disadvantage of concrete.
Methodology
chapter 3

3.0 Methodology
The target of this project is to study the direct tension for the fibre reinforced concrete beam and the compressive strength for concrete cube. For this, different mixture was taken with different fibre ratio. To archive this target six different type of concrete casts were made. Each casts were made of three beam and three cubes. This is to make sure that the results obtained were accurate and this is to take the average of the test that I was going to do.
3.1 Moisture test coarse and fine aggregates
The purpose of moisture test is to show how much water contains in the aggregate.
This necessary as this will affect the mixture and also the design when making the content. The reason behind this is that the aggregates may have been exposed to rain water and surface particulars. For both the coarse and fine aggregates three samples were selected. All samples were weighed before placing it in the oven. The samples were then kept in the oven for 24 hours at After 24 hours the samples were taken out and weighed again. After placing it in the oven all the water in the aggregates would have been evaporated and the dry weight of the aggregates would have been left behind. Then the Moisture content was calculated using this equation. 
2.91
Moisture content test result for course aggregate
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Mass of container (g) 255.23(g) 261.68(g) 256.86(g)
Mass of sample (g) 1000.20(g) 1001.02(g) 1000.21(g)
Mass of ( container + sample) (g) 1255.43(g) 1261.7(g) 1257.07(g)
Mass of ( container +dry sample) (g) 1227.14(g) 1232.21(g) 1225.14(g)
Mass of dry sample(g) 971.91(g) 970.53(g) 968.28(g)
Mass of water 28.29(g) 29.49(g) 31.93(g)
Moisture content (%) 2.91 3.03 3.29
Average Moisture content 3.08
Moisture content test result for Fine Aggregate
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Mass of container (g) 257.68(g) 263.03(g) 180.95(g)
Mass of sample (g) 1000.38(g) 1001.13(g) 500.09(g)
Mass of ( container + sample) (g) 1258.06(g) 1263.03 (g) 681.85(g)
Mass of ( container +dry sample) (g) 1249.62(g) 1256.29(g) 677.96(g)
Mass of dry sample(g) 991.94(g) 993.26(g) 497.01(g)
Mass of water 8.44(g) 6.87(g) 3.08(g)
Moisture content (%) 0.85% 0.69% 0.61%
Average Moisture content 0.72
3.2 Sieve Test
Sieve Analysis for coarse and fine aggregates. The sieve size used of seven different sizes for fine & coarse aggregates.
500.05g fine aggregate, 968.28g coarse aggregates are put on the shaking table for 2 minutes. After 2 minute the sieve was removed from the shake table and weight of each sieve was noted. Then the values were then plotted on a graph for the percentage passing through and the sieve size.
Table 3 - Sieve Analysis fine Aggregates
3.3 Comparing the Sieve Tests
According to the mass of the aggregates that passed through the sieve and the mass left behind in the sieve. After the results were taken on the fine aggregates the sieve size 2.36mm had the most of the aggregates passing through. This sieve passed about 91.51% of the aggregates. The coarse aggregates on the other hand had 78.8% passing through the 9.5mm sieve.
3.4 Casting
For the every casting Fine, coarse aggregates, Water, Cement, and Fibre were used. First casting with 0% of fibre then increase with the fibre ratio and used the different type of fibre as well. But cement, water and aggregates ratio constant.
Three cubes and three beam with 0.0% fibre (Plan concrete)
Three cubes and three beam with 0.1% polypropylene fibre
Three cubes and three beam with 0.3% polypropylene fibre
Three cubes and three beam with 0.5% polypropylene fibre
Three cubes and three beam with 0.5% Steel fibre
Three cubes and three beam with 1% polypropylene fibre
Three cubes and three beam with 3% polypropylene fibre3.5 Produce for specimen
3.6 Casting Calculation
Cube volume :-0.001m3
Tension Beam Volume :-0.00349m3
Three cube Volume :-0.003 m3
Three Tension Beam Volume :-0.0102 m3
Total volume :-0.0132 m3
Total mass of concrete =0.0132 ×2400
=31.68kg
=32kg
3.7 Casting the specimen
The required amount of the cement, aggregates were measured and then were put into a concrete mixture, after the mixture have been mixed, the required amount of water was added and then once again the mixture was mixed. Once this was done then the fibre was added in accordance with the percentage of the fibre content in the experiment. Once all the mixture have been added and mixed properly, the mixture was then poured into the prepared wooden and steel mould. The moulds were then placed on a vibrator so that the mixture fills the mould evenly and to get a great bond between the aggregates. First the mould was filled with ⅓ concrete then it was placed on the vibrating table for about 30-40 seconds and then another ⅓ was added so the mould was now filled with ⅔ of the concrete and then on the vibrating table again. later the last ⅓ was added and then again on the vibrating table. once all the specimens were prepared, they were left in a safe place for 24 hours and then they were placed in water tanks for 28 days.
3.8 Curing the concrete
Curing the concrete means that water is added to help the concrete to dry slower. The main reason for this is to stop concrete getting dried quickly. This is because if the concrete dries quickly there will be lot of problems in making the bond. First of all the it will not develop the full bond between all of it’s ingredients. Secondly it will be weaker and tend to crack more quickly. The other main thing is that the surface will not be as hard as it could be. The weather hot and cold makes it the drying out process more quicker. So to control the process, the water is added which allows a slower drying process. (Neville 1995)

Making of The Cast/Specimen
chapter 4
4.0 Casting No 1 - 0% Fibre Casting
0%fibre casting
Cast date: - 31/01/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
Fibre : - 0kg
4.1 Casting No 2 - 3% Polypropylene Beam Casting
3% polypropylene fibre casting
Cast date: - 31/01/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
3% Polypropylene Fibre : - 0.44kg
3% Polypropylene Fibre volume = 3.96 × 10-4
3% Polypropylene Fibre Mass =3.96 × 10-4 × 1000
=0.396kg
=0.4kg
After 10% increase =0.44kg
4.2 Casting No3 - 0.3% Polypropylene Beam Casting
0.3% polypropylene fibre casting
Cast date: - 06/02/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
0.3% Polypropylene Fibre : - 0.044kg
0.3% Polypropylene Fibre volume = 3.96 × 10-5
0.3% Polypropylene Fibre Mass =3.96 × 10-5 × 1000
=0.0396kg
=0.04kg
After 10% increase =0.044kg
4.3 Casting No 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre Casting
0.5%steel fibre casting
Cast date: - 13/02/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
0.5% steel Fibre : - 0.57kg
0.5% steel Fibre volume = 6.6 × 10-5
0.5% steel Fibre Mass =6.6 × 10-5 × 7800
=0.514kg
=0.514kg
After 10% increase =0.57kg
4.4 Casting No 5 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre Casting
0.5%polypropylene fibre casting
Cast date: - 21/02/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
0.5% Polypropylene Fibre : - 0.072kg
0.5% Polypropylene Fibre volume = 6.6 × 10-5
0.5% Polypropylene Fibre Mass =6.6 × 10-5 × 1000
=0.066kg
After 10% increase =0.072kg4.5 Casting No6 - 1% Polypropylene Fibre Casting
1%polypropylene fibre casting
Cast date: -13/03/2013
Cement : - 5.808kg
Fine aggregates : - 8.712kg
Coarse aggregates : - 17.424kg
Water : - 2.904kg
1% Polypropylene Fibre : - 0.145kg
1% Polypropylene Fibre volume = 13.2× 10-5
1% Polypropylene Fibre Mass =13.2 × 10-5 × 1000
=0.132kg
After 10% increase =0.145kg
Testing The Specimen
Cubes
chapter 5

After a long 28 days, the specimens were taken out of the water tank, and were tested for various tension and the compression strength. The results were noted and were plotted on a graph to compare the results. The results gave a deep understanding between the properties of the cubes and the beams. The dimension of each specimen were noted. The age, mass, density, area, load of failure and the stress of each specimen were calculated. Each of them were taken three time and then the average was calculated. this would provide a more accurate and more reliable answer, this would help to have a better conclusion of what kind of fibre is better in terms of structural integrity. The cubes were tested for the compression strength and the beams were tested for the direct tension. 5.0 Compressive Test on The Cubes

For all the compression test, the machine in figure 17 were used to calculate the compressive test. The specimens were placed on the bottom plate and then the force was applied in the top plate. This was done for all the cubes specimens. When the cube was crushed by the machine the compressive strength were noted. The machine’s standard given stress by the machine was given as 0.6MP/sec. 5.1 Cube Test 1 - 0% Fibre
Specimen type: Cube
Test Date: 28/02/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
0% a 100x100x100 28 days 2.3458 2345.8 10000 355.1 35.51
0% b 100x100x100 28 days 2.406 2406 10000 388.9 38.89
0% c 100x100x100 28 days 2.3456 2345.6 10000 361.2 36.12
Average 368.4 36.84
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time(Sec)
0% a 35.51 59.18
0% b 38.89 64.82
0% c 36.12 60.2
5.2 Cube Test 2 - 3% Polypropylene Fibre
Specimen Type: 3% Polypropylene Fibre
Test Date: 01/03/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age (Days) Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of Failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
3% a 100x100x100 29 2.4041 2404.1 10000 341.1 34.11
3% b 100x100x100 29 2.3272 2327.2 10000 332.6 33.26
3% c 100x100x100 29 2.3623 2362.3 10000 357.9 35.79
Average 343.87 34.39
Standard deviation 12.87 1.29
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time(Sec)
3% a 34.11 56.85
3% b 33.26 55.43
3% c 35.79 59.655.3 Cube Test 3 - 0.3% Polypropylene
Specimen Cube - 0.3% Polypropylene
Test date: 08/03/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age (Days) Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
0.3% a 100x100x100 30 2.4841 2484.1 10000 418.9 41.89
0.3% b 100x100x100 30 2.3789 2378.9 10000 427.6 42.76
0.3% c 100x100x100 30 2.3831 2383.1 10000 423.8 42.38
Average   423.43 56.88
Standard deviation   4.36 24.78
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time(Sec)
0.3% a 41.89 69.82
0.3% b 42.76 71.27
0.3% c 42.38 70.635.4 Cube Test 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre
Specimen Type: 0.5% Steel
Test Date: 13/03/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age (Days) Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
0.5% a 100x100x100 28 2.4388 2438.8 10000 399.1 39.91
0.5% b 100x100x100 28 2.4208 2420.8 10000 408.3 40.83
0.5% c 100x100x100 28 2.5296 2529.6 10000 416.7 41.67
Average   408.03 40.80
Standard deviation   8.80 0.88
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time(Sec)
0.5% a 39.91 66.52
0.5% b 40.83 68.05
0.5% c 41.67 69.455.5 Cube Test 5 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre
Specimen Type: 0.5% Polypropylene
Test Date: 21/03/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age (Days) Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
0.5% a 100x100x100 28 2.4525 2452.5 10000 340.8 34.08
0.5% b 100x100x100 28 2.3586 2358.6 10000 344.3 34.43
0.5% c 100x100x100 28 2.3503 2350.3 10000 328.8 32.88
Average   337.97 33.80
Standard deviation   8.13 0.81
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time(Sec)
0.5% a 34.08 56.8
0.5% b 34.43 57.38
0.5% c 32.88 54.85.6 Cube Test 6 - 1% Polypropylene Fibre
Specimen Type: 1% Polypropylene
Test Date: 21/03/2013
Specimen Dimension mm Age Mass (Kg) Density (Kg/m³) Area (mm²) Load of failure (kN) Stress (MPa)
1% a 100x100x100 30 2.4473 2447.3 10000 377.7 37.77
1% b 100x100x100 30 2.5197 2519.7 10000 358.6 35.86
1% c 100x100x100 30 2.4517 2451.7 10000 378.2 37.82
Average           371.5 37.15
Specimen ID. Stress (MPa) Time
1% a 37.77 62.95
1% b 35.86 59.77
1% c 37.82 63.03
Testing The Specimen
Beams
chapter 6
6.0 Beam Test 1 - 0% Fibre
As there was so many results to take into account, the Fmax and the dL at Fmax were noted. This was done for all the beams that were tested.
6.1 Beam Test 2 - 0.3% Polypropylene Fibre

6.2 Beam Test 3 - 0.5% Polypropylene Fibre
6.3 Beam Test 4 - 0.5% Steel Fibre
6.4 Beam Test 5 - 3% Steel Fibre
The tables below summarizes the values that were originally obtained and were tabulated to get an overview of the results. While testing the beam for the direct tensile stress. The 0.3% Polypropylene for the specimen 2 had an answer different to that of the other two, this is because the beam was cracked when the testing took place. The crack occurred at the beams handle where the tensile testing machine attaches. 
Analysis Of Data
chapter 7
7.0 Analyzing the Tests
The values obtained in the tests shows that there is a close relation ship between the results obtained for the polypropylene fibre to that of the steel fibre. The cube test shows that the value obtained for the 0% Polypropylene, 0.5% and 3% Polypropylene have the similar results. The all three of them have a load failure between 337kN - 341kN. Although the cube test shows that the these three values have a similar results the 0.3 polypropylene have the highest load failure of 423kN. However the 1% Polypropylene fits nicely between them. On the other hand the beam test shows that the o.5% steel and the 1% polypropylene have the highest result of 15kN this shows that these two have the highest value when compared to the other percentage fibre in the mixture. However by looking at the values of in detail the 0.5% steel fibre has the outstanding results in the direct tensile test and also the compression test. Although this is the best of all the mixtures the 1% polypropylene also have a similar results and lies just behind the 0.5% steel. The final conclusion of which one is better have to be noted after looking into other external factors that affect the properties.
7.1 Problems Faced When Preparing the Specimen
The problems when preparing the specimen was that the one of the specimen had a crack which affected the results.
Also the other problem is that when the water content was added. in one of the mixture the water content was added far more than required. this was then later taken into consideration and that particular specimen was made again with the correct amount of water.
Conclusion
chapter 8
8.0 Conclusion and Evaluation
The main reason for the test is to show that the bond between the aggregates and the fibre. The bond between the fibre and the aggregate is the most important thing. The stronger the bond the better the load failure. After all the specimens were tested the values were then analysed. The values were tabulated and graphs were plotted for both the types of concrete. I think that after all the test that the 1% polypropylene is a better combination to make concrete. This has the most direct tensile stress value and compression strength. Although 0.5% steel had a slightly better value than the polypropylene, I would still consider the 1% polypropylene as this is cheaper in terms of manufacturing techniques. The fibre is far more cheaper than the steel per m3 and produces almost equal strength to that of the steel fibre. Although Polypropylene fibre cannot be used as a substitute for the structural steel reinforcement. This however provides an alternative to steel mesh where necessary. therefor making the construction faster. Also when dealing with steel, we have to be more careful when handling it. as steel is likely to oxide/rust. In the long run there are chances that the oxidised steel to crack. On the other hand the polypropylene does not have that fate and is more reliable. Features of polypropylene fibre concrete is that it improves concrete’s resistance to plastic shrinkage cracking. Also it inhibits the formation of micro cracks due to dimensional change and also reduces sedimentation. The benefit of polypropylene is that it reduces the frequency of plastic cracking. It improves durability and reduces permeability. Decreases the risk of plastic settlement cracking over re-bar. It also increases the cohesion of the mix and also provides a no requirement for the crack control steel mesh. Its a concrete placement and a crack control in one operation. This method reduces bleeding. Also it provides an easier finishing of the concrete surface So considering all the aspects of the test. Polypropylene is a better choice. The decision was taken in accordance with the experimental values obtained. however there is more chances of improving the bond between the concrete and the fibre. This test was conducted with only polypropylene and steel. However this experiment could have been done with different types of fibre and also with different types of length to get more reliable and accurate results. There are several factors that would have been affecting the bonding and the results. One of the specimen was left for curing for 29 days and the other for 28 days, this would have caused a slight change in the value. Also the specimens were placed in the water tank after 24 hours, the time could have been reduced or could have made another specimen and were placed in water tank before 24 hours.

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