Analysis Of Personality Traits Of Exemplary Leaders Theology Religion Essay

Published: 2021-08-14 06:35:06
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ABSTRACT
An exemplary leader is one who creates standards of excellence, models the way for others to follow, inspires a shared vision for exciting possibilities, challenges the existing process and searches for new opportunities, empowers others to act to the vision and recognizes individual contributions to encourage others to accomplish the extraordinary. Traits of an exemplary leader: 1) It’s all about people: If you are someone who can lead and manage people with extraordinary human skills, you are good to go. 2) Think big, but stay grounded. 3) Think global, but act local, 4) Have a 50,000 feet view, but accept and work within the day-to-day realities, 5) Be compassionate, but tough when required, 6) Fight along with the troops from the frontline during a crisis (and keep them happy and motivated).
On these lines the paper focuses on the personality traits of various leaders. The unique blend of traits of a leader’s personality creates his or her leadership style. Here, when we say leaders, we mean people who have made a difference to the world. The study tries to identify the key personality traits of some top leaders, which made them stand out from the crowd. Top leaders like Adolf Hitler, Ratan Tata, Margaret Thatcher, Steve Jobs, Warren buffet are the names that need no introduction, the study analyses the various traits of personality that these people possess. During the process of analysis the main emphasis is being given on Big- Five Model of personality and Myers- Briggs Type Indicator the two important models of Personality.
The conclusion doesn’t really talks about the mandatory traits that a leader should possess to be successful, but, it says that the individuals in every society possess different degrees of intelligence, energy, and moral face. However, it is important that each of us know our strengths and weaknesses.
Keywords: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, leadership, Personality.
INTRODUCTION:
It is easy to spot leaders: They are the people others follow.
It’s harder to answer the question whether leaders are born that way or are created by their environment. Several leadership gurus have said emphatically that leadership is neither a designation nor title that goes either as a prefix or suffix along with their names. However, it goes with the people who do their best with their hearts and passion by demonstrating an example for others. These are the real ‘exemplars of success ’! [2]
Successful Leaders come in a wide variety of personal characteristics such as their ability to make speeches in public or to relate to people in groups or individually.[3] We have all met successful leaders that we wondered what enabled them to be effective. Some are smooth and some are rough. Some are charming and some….. It is impossible to find any one characteristic that all of them have and many non-leaders do not have.
The unique blend of traits of a leader’s personality creates his or her leadership style.
TOP FIVE PERSONALITIES
ADOLF HITLER
Adolf Hitler was the Dictator of Germany and one of the most well-known and influential personality. Hitler’s mind was considerably more important than his physical appearance in his rise to power. Those who see Hitler as a diabolical adventurer motivated solely by a lust for personal power misunderstand his mental capabilities. He possessed an unusually retentive memory. He remembered minute details from his early life, the industrial production figures of European countries, and precise statistics on ships and military armaments.
His success in pulling Germany out of the depression and virtually eliminating unemployment reinforced this view of himself as a great simplifier.
Personality Traits:
Hitler was rigid due to his refusal to change in any significant way. This inflexibility was expressed throughout Hitler’s life. Hitler did not permit others to know his feelings and desires and carefully guarded his private life. Contemporaries identified Hitler’s lack of humor as another personality trait.
In his work "Three Faces of Fascism", the German historian ERNST Nolte wrote at length about Hitler’s infantilism. He defined this infantilism as persistence in remaining in the child’s world. As he grew older, Hitler refused to enter the adult world of compromise and moderation. Further examination of Hitler’s personality reveals a man governed by dualities. He saw everything in terms of extreme opposites. People were either his followers or his enemies.
Any assessment of Hitler’s personality traits must also focus on his intuition, opportunism and capacity for hatred. Hitler believed that he possessed a special sense of right timing that was a product of his intuitive abilities. [4]
STEVE JOBS
Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs was an American entrepreneur. He is best known as the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. Through Apple, he was widely recognized as a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer revolution and for his influential career in the computer and consumer electronics field.
Personality traits
Steve Jobs reputation in the organization was that of a terror inspiring taskmaster who screamed at his workers and randomly fired those unlucky ones. Moreover, when Macintosh was initially not doing well, he used to sob on the shop of his company.
Jobs had a strong self-confidence in his ability to solve problems and make decisions. Owing to his high controlling power, Steve Jobs possess the ability to remake a big, dysfunctional corporation into a tight, disciplined ship that accomplished tasks on his demanding schedule. Self-confidence differentiates between effective and ineffective managers.
Many colleagues described him as a talented person who is captivating and can be a remarkable motivator. An example of Inspiration is when Jobs lured Sculley from Pepsi by asking him if he wanted a chance to change the world or to spend the rest of his life selling sugared water.
Jobs impelled his workers to the heights of unethical extreme work conditions by working nights and weekends for fifteen consecutive months in order to meet a deadline. He had more aggressive vision and he was a perfectionist who developed thrust in his staff to create elegant, iconic products.
He was a micro manager and possessed a high degree of passion for his work. He shared his passion with staff by providing vision that will become reality, inspired his people, guided and developed his team, and made many key decisions. Prior to Jobs’ return to Apple, the organization was in an off-hand environment with employees reporting late and knocking off early. After taking over, he controlled all aspects in the day- to-day operations of Apple.
Steve did not listen to people’s feelings what he only would listen is their ideas. The ideas the employees put forward to Steve ought to be exigent as he will force them to stick to the ideas and often raised their blood pressure to test if they know the facts and have strong arguments.
Steve had strong work ethics, he had insights into his people and situation. A leader, who has insight of his people, understands that they are the essential characteristics of the leaders. [4]
WARREN BUFFET
Superior business leader and American investor Warren Buffet is often called "Oracle of Omaha" or the "Sage of Omaha" and philanthropist. Buffet is the CEO, and the biggest shareholder of the Berkshire Hathaway Company. Buffet has an estimated current net worth of approximately $52 billion in US funds. Forbes magazine ranks Buffett the third richest person in the world in September 2007 behind Carlos Slim and Bill Gates.
Personality Traits
Warren Buffet is known for his economical and plain lifestyle. He never flies in a private jet even though he owns the largest private jet company in the world. As a side note, Warren Buffett is Bill Gate’s mentor.
What makes Warren Buffet a good business leader? Warren Buffett is a true leader where his leadership makes a difference in the world. Leadership is very much related to change and he has the capabilities of leadership change to fit the changing world. Warren Buffett has repeatedly demonstrated the ability to map read in the irregular waters of change. Also, Warren Buffett is a skilled communicator in all aspects of life.
Besides this Warren has passion, common sense, discipline, determination and patience.
Buffett has right passion to investing. No doubt. He had identified his passion at the time of childhood and had done his maximum to develop this passion to the right level.
Investor and investment success highly requires approaches based on common sense. When to invest? In which company? At what time? These are some common sense questions that need to be addressed to make the right decision. Buffett used this common sense approach when selected his investment candidates and that lead him to the right success!
Discipline is the other name of Warren Buffett. He is a disciplined investor. Buffett has high level of dedication to his job. He never crossed or compromised with his quality at any time in his career or life.
"Let the rain come with water or rock, I am bothered least", this is Buffett’s approach. Buffett never missed the coolness and calm. His success is the result of his patience. [4]
MARGARET THATCHER
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician, the longest-serving (1979–1990) Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of the 20th century, and the only woman ever to have held the post. A Soviet journalist nicknamed her the "Iron Lady", which became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented Conservative policies that have come to be known as Thatcherism. [6]
Personality Trait
The crucial element in Thatcher's success was her personality, her principled and uncompromising leadership.
She dared do what no one else had the courage to do in Britain for decades: challenge the prevailing consensus, the common wisdom, the entrenched interests, and drive a reluctant party and a befuddled country in a radically new direction.
Her straightforward, direct way of putting things, so unusual for a political leader, earned her some enemies among other leaders but made for a refreshing contrast with the hypocrisy and vacuity of the accepted political discourse.
She has at times also been very kind and thoughtful.
As to the relative importance of ideas and/or leadership, she gave her own view on the occasion of the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the IEA. After having listened to a series of speeches by distinguished academics, all praising the great importance of ideas, she thus concluded her remarks: "Speaking as the eleventh speaker and the only woman, I hope you will recall that it may be the cock that crows but it is the hen who lays the eggs."[4]
RATAN TATA
Ratan Naval Tata, (born 28 December 1937) is an Indian businessman who became chairman of the Tata Group (1991–2012), a Mumbai-based conglomerate. [8]
Ratan Tata's foreign affiliations include membership of the international advisory boards of the Mitsubishi Corporation, the American International Group, JP Morgan Chase and Booz Allen Hamilton. He is also a member of the board of trustees of the RAND Corporation, University of Southern California and Cornell University. He also serves as a board member on South Africa's International Investment Council and is a member of the Asia-Pacific advisory committee for the New York Stock Exchange. He received the Padma Bhushan in 2000 and Padma Vibhushan in 2008 and Lifetime Achievement Award awarded by Rockefeller Foundation in 2012. In 2009, Tata was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. [6]
Personality Trait
Ratan Tata is a Visionary. He is a Dreamer and such people can not only envision future but also think far beyond in the future than anyone else's imagination.
He has a fierce Determination and Persistence in his personality. This is a deadly combination of traits that partly explains why Ratan Tata has not left the business scene despite being subject to sort of problems that could potentially destroy lesser mortals. He has faced innumerable adverse situations and times in life but never ever given-up. This sure is a sign of a great man.
Ratan Tata has Pride and Dignity in his personality. Pride is a spur to achievement. Pride says "You must think well of me too". At the start of his career, Tata faced opposition from several lots of peers who thought that he was best suited for the job of the Chairman of Tata group. Of course, his persistence and determination helped but it was his Pride that also played a big role in overcoming opposition and move ahead with his head taller. Ratan Tata is quite an Emotional Person, with a broad range of emotions from extreme highs to lows. He is a person with High Emotional Intensity and feels situations In-depth, quite intensely. He can very easily relate to other people's problems.
He has Perfectionism in his personality. He is a kind of person who takes time putting everything in place and reviews work thoroughly in order to make it precise.
He is usually quite cautious in his approach. A Cautious person is inclined to be careful in order to minimize risk and reduce any impulsive behavior. Cautiousness is quite an understood trait for a person heading such a huge business empire. This aspect of his personality prevents him from blindly trusting everyone. [8]
MODELS OF PERSONALITY
The two most popular models that are used to analyze the personalities of various leaders in this article are MBTI and Big Five Model of personality.
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
MBTI assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking. One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.
The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers; these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use.The MBTI instrument sorts for preferences and does not measure trait, ability, or character.
Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. [5]
Extraversion or Introversion: Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, talkative, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved, quiet, shy behavior.
Sensing or Intuition: Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. On the other hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be associated with other information. They may be more interested in future possibilities. For them, the meaning is in the underlying theory and principles which are manifested in the data.
Thinking or Feeling: Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions. Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved.
Judging or Perception: The J–P index is designed to describe the process a person uses primarily in dealing with the outer world, Judging types want control, and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous. [1]
The 16 personality types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument are listed here as they are often shown in what is called a "type table."
BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY:
In psychology, the Big Five personality traits1 are five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality. The theory based on the Big Five factors is called the Five Factor Model (FFM). The Big Five factors are:
Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness to experience.
Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior; organized, and dependable.
Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness.
Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control, and is sometimes referred by its low pole – "emotional stability".
CONCLUSION:
After studying the personality from varied backgrounds of politics, administration and business, we can clearly see in the analysis that except Adolf Hitler who was a highly Neurotic person, most of the rest personalities has Conscientiousness and Extroversion as a common trait also the most prominent traits that we can identify in the MBTI analysis is Intuition and Thinking, successful leaders rely on intuition, but they at the same time think before making a decision. So, we can say that these are the most desirable traits for a leader to be successful, but again this is debatable. The research does not clearly points out any specific trait or combination of traits that an individual should possess to be a successful leader but, it says that the individuals in every society possess different degrees of intelligence, energy, and moral face. However, it is important that each of us know our strengths and weaknesses.

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