Open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant, pressure drop, pressure ratio.
To investigate and analyze the performance of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant by considering the pressure losses during the cycle.
To develop a computer program that allows final users to analyze the performance of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant.
To compare the performance of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant with and without the pressure losses.
To determine the optimum condition that allows the power plant to operate at maximum power output with and without the pressure losses.
The project involves the understanding of the theory regarding the operation of an open cycle regenerator power plant and the principle behind the system.
The project involves the understanding of the mathematical calculation regarding the power output of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant.
The project also involves the understanding of computer language to produce the computer program to analyze the performance of the open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant.
1.3 Problem Statement
Pressure drop losses are not taken into account during classical calculation of the power output of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant.
Calculations have to be performed to obtain the power output of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant with and without pressure losses.
1.4 Gas Turbine
The gas turbine is unquestionably one of the most important inventions of the 20th century, and it has changed our lives in many ways. Early gas turbines for power generation applications were of low power and their thermal efficiency was too low to be competitive. By the end of the 20th century, however, gas turbines were capable of output up to 300MW with thermal efficiencies of 40 per cent and the gas turbine became widely used in power generation.
The power plant usually consists of an air compressor, a heat exchanger, a combustion chamber and a gas turbine. First, the air is being compressed by the air compressor and then being raised its temperature by the heat exchanger before being combusted in the combustion chamber. The air then undergoes expansion in the gas turbine and finally being channel back to the heat exchanger before being released to ambient environment.
The gas turbine is used in a wide range of applications. Common uses include power generation plants and military and commercial aircraft. In Jet Engine usage, the power output of the turbine is used to provide thrust for the aircraft.
Gas turbines operate on the principal of the Brayton Cycle, which is defined as a constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes simultaneously and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power.
The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of the gas turbine engine that can be used in both internal combustion engines (such as jet engines) and for external combustion engines. It usually consists of a compressor, a combustion chamber and a turbine.
The four steps of the cycle are:
(1-2) Isentropic Compression-Ambient air compressed in the compressor
(2-3) Isobaric Heat Addition-Pressurized air heated in the combustion chamber
(3-4) Isentropic Expansion-Expansion of heated pressurized air in the turbine
(4-1) Isobaric Heat Rejection-Heat rejection to the atmosphere
Thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle
1.5 Open Cycle Gas Turbine
Gas turbines normally operate on an open cycle, as shown in the figure above. Fresh air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature is drawn into the compressor. The compressor increases the temperature and the pressure of the air as the volume decreases. The high-pressure airs are then channel into the combustion chamber, where the air is mixed with the burning fuel at a constant pressure. The mixture of high-temperature gases and fuel then flows into the turbine. The air expands to the atmospheric pressure through a row of nozzle vanes in the turbine. This expansion causes the turbine blade to spin, which then turns a shaft inside a magnetic coil. When the shaft is rotating inside the magnetic coil, electrical current is produced. The exhaust gases leaving the turbine in the open cycle are not re-circulated.
1.6 Closed Cycle Gas Turbine
The open gas-turbine cycle can also be modeled as a closed cycle as shown in figure above by using the air standard mode. The compression and expansion processes remain the unchanged. However, the combustion chamber is replaced by a heat exchanger that supplies heat from an external source while the exhaust process is substitute with a heat exchanger that release heat to the ambient environment.
2.3Principal irreversibilities and Losses
In real gas turbine, the T-S diagram deviates from an actual gas turbine as a result of irreversibility. There are pressure losses due to fluid friction during compression and expansion. There are also pressure losses during heat addition and heat rejection due to fluid flow.
Efficiency of compressor
Efficiency of turbine
2. Literature review
Chen et al managed to derive the analytical formulae about the relation between power output and the cycle’s overall pressure-ratio by considering pressure losses of the open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant. Chen et al then found that the power output can be optimized by adjusting the mass-flow rate and the distribution of pressure losses along the flow path. The power output also has a maximum with respect to the fuel-flow rate or any of the pressure-drops. The maximized power output also has an additional maximum with respect to the overall pressure-ratio.
2.1 Open Cycle Regenerator Gas Turbine
Every gas turbine has three fundamental elements in common, an axial compressor, a combustor and a turbine. These elements work together to produce usable energy. First it converts fuel energy into heat energy and then it harness as much of that heat as possible and converts it into mechanical energy. The more heat it produces, the more energy it can extract. However, basic cycle gas turbine can only achieve maximum efficiency of less than 50%. Thus element such as regenerator, intercooler or reheater can be added to increase its thermal efficiency and the power output.
Regeneration involves the installation of a regenerative heat exchanger through which the turbine exhaust gases pass.
In open cycle gas-turbine, the temperature of the exhaust gas exiting the turbine is usually higher than the temperature of the air leaving the compressor. Therefore, the high-pressure air leaving the compressor can be heated before it enters the combustion chamber by utilizing the heat from the hot exhaust through a counter flow heat exchanger.
The temperature of the hot inlet of the regenerator is T4, the temperature of the exhaust gases leaving the turbine and entering the regenerator. The temperature of the cold inlet is T2, the temperature of the compressed air leaving the compressor and entering the regenerator. The compressed air is usually heated to a temperature near to T4 but never above it. The air exits the regenerator exits the regenerator as T5.
The regeneration will help to increase the thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle as the portion of energy from the exhaust gasses is now transferred to the compressed air.
2.2 Brayton cycle with regeneration
Thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle with regeneration:
Degree of regeneration
2.3 Open regenerated Brayton-cycle for a gas-turbine power-plant
Performance analysis will be based on the open cycle regeneration gas turbine power plant model shown above. The cycle consists of a compressor, a regenerator, a combustion chamber, and a gas turbine.
2.4 The temperature-entropy diagram and the flow resistances of the power-plant model
The performance analysis will include the with considerations of the eight pressure-drop losses in the intake, compression, regeneration, combustion, expansion and discharge processes and flow process in the piping, the heat-transfer loss to the ambient environment, the irreversible compression and expansion losses in the compressor and the turbine, and the irreversible combustion-loss in the combustion chamber.
2.6 Expected results
Perform theoretical analysis on the performance of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant by considering the pressure losses.
Write a computer program to analyze the performance of an open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant with and without pressure losses.
Compare the performance of the open cycle regenerator gas turbine power plant with and without pressure losses.
3.2 Flow Chart
3.3 Theoretical analysis
4. Progress report based on Gantt chart
Table 1 – Progress Report
Study on thermodynamic
Study on related journal paper
Study on Matlab
Study on related mathematical formulae
Attempt to plot desired graph
Preparation of progress report
4.1 Current progress
The above are some of the sample graph plotted that are similar to the expected results. However, the similarities are limited as the degree of regeneration of the regenerator in the expected results remains unknown.
The remaining graphs are still in the progress as there are so difficulties encountered with the mathematical formulae.
The project is going according to the timeline given. Further analysis on the turbine’s temperature ratio and the regenerator’s temperature ratio will help to create the program desired.
Further study into thermodynamic will ease the progress of this project. There are one particular journal related to the project that is yet to be purchased. Purchasing this journal will solve most of the problem encountered.