Academic Self Concept And Socio Demographic Profile Education Essay

Published: 2021-06-30 13:15:04
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Academic achievement is one of the major factors in education because it can be seen as an indicator of the success of a country’s education system. Dambudzo (2009) states that the society placed more focus and importance on the academic achievement of its citizens.
The academic achievement of students is an important indicator of academic success in school. Students with higher levels of achievement during their college years are more likely to obtain good position in a company and get high salaries when they graduate. In short, academic achievement is significant because it promotes success later in life (Areepattamannil & Freeman, 2008).
Large numbers of students enroll every year. One will notice that, after several semesters in school, some students will be successful and others won’t continue their schooling (Sikhwari, 2004). It may be assumed that low IQ and laziness is causing this, but this is not always the case. An IQ is score that is obtained by assessing the intelligence of an individual by means of a standardized test that is specifically designed to measure intelligence. A low IQ would thus imply that an individual is less intelligent than someone with a high IQ. Yoon, Eccles and Wigfield (1996) as cited in Coetzee (2011) state that one of the most persistent question confronting parents, teachers and school administrators is the uneven academic achievement among equally able students.
Various factors are considered to be contributors to the academic achievement of students, this includes non-cognitive factors such as, self-concept, motivation, teachers, socio-demographic profile, the school environment, study habits, and others. In addition to the aforementioned, there are also cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, such as IQ and standardized test scores, which usually have been associated with academic achievement. Much research has been made with the cognitive factors and it is also important to study the non-cognitive factors affecting academic achievement (Cokley, Bernard, Cunnigham & Motoike, 2001).
A lot of research has been done on cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, while the affective factors are overlooked (Sikhwari 2004). It’s not only the cognitive factors that should get priority but the affective factors as well. (Sikhwari, 2004).
Much research has contributed to our understanding of the curricula, instructional strategies and student performance, as documented by grades and standardized test scores (McEachron-Hirsh, 2003). McEachron-Hirsh believes that little is known about the students' perceptions of their academic experience and the kind of self-concepts they construct, based upon these experiences, as well as the extent to which they are motivated to do their best in academic work. Therefore, more investigation is needed on the self-concepts and motivation of the individuals, and how these two affective variables influence their academic work and their performance.
In our society, academic achievement is considered a basis for an individual’s potentials and capabilities. Hence, it occupies a very important place in education. Academic achievement also indicates the knowledge achieved and skill developed in the school, usually represented by test scores. Achievement is influenced by the learner’s personality, motivation, opportunities, education and training (Nuthanap, 2007)
Quality of education is mostly assessed on the basis of academic performance, and achievement scores are considered to be its basis, but achievement scores alone neither give enough understanding of the causes of students’ success or failure, nor suggest the methods for improving the achievement. Identifying and analyzing the factors that affects academic performance is necessary. The understanding of these factors will help in improving the achievement of students.
Teachers and counselors in educational institutions are often confronted with students who appear to have above average scholastic aptitude but are very poor in their studies. A recurring question that puzzles them is why some students succeed in their study while others do not. This question is sometimes considered to be closely related to learning than teaching. Jamuar (1974) as cited in Malathi and Subbiah (2013) stated that not only on good teaching methods but also good study habits affects the students learning. Anwana and Cobbach (1989) as scited in Malathi and Subbiah (2013) also believe that there are other factors why students do badly academically other than low intellectual capacity. Tiwari and Bansal as cited by Parveen (2013) also stated if that an individual has a high academic achievement he is likely to have a better opportunity in life and low achievers will have difficulty in landing a job after graduation.
Green, Nelson, Martin and Marsh (2006) indicate that various studies have attempted to explain whether positive self-concept leads to an increase in academic achievement. According to them, a number of studies have examined the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement and found a positive relationship between the two variables.
Other than low intellectual capacity, there are many factors why many students do badly academically. One factor is poor study habits, in which naturally intelligent students will have poor or low academic performance because they have bad study habits. Habits are true indicators of individuality in a person. So study habits may be defined as the behavior of an individual in relation to his studies. In the process of learning, learner’s habitual ways of exercising and practicing their abilities for learning are considered as study habits of learners. The pattern of behavior adopted by students in the pursuit of their studies is considered under the caption of their study habits. Study habits reveal students personality. Learner’s learning character is characterized by his study habits (Alex, 2011)
Study habits play a very important role in the life of students. Success or failure of each student depends upon his own study habits. Some students give more time on their studies but they achieve less. Others give less time but achieve more. Students’ definitely depends upon ability, intelligence and the effort they exert. Without a doubt, good study habits brings good achievement Nagaraju (2004).
The study habits are influenced by attitudes, personality traits, level of aspirations, teaching methods adopted and material they are to learn. So, it is the effort of teachers to develop good study habits among students. Such habits are the best equipment with which they can live and lead their lives with confidence. If the habits are developed in the young age they will definitely cherish the joy of its fruits in the rest of their lives, because grown up children are already habituated to certain things. So they find it difficult it modify their habits and behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the study habits of students in secondary level. It is the suitable time and age to develop their study habits. Students are quite matured at this age. They are able to know what is good and what is bad. They can avoid bad things and acquire good things with the help of teachers Nicolas-Victorino (2011).
Research on the academic achievement suggests that it has relationship with some demographic characteristics. In a study conducted by Jaeger & Eagan (2007) and Cole & Espinoza (2008) found gender differences in the academic performance of male and female students. Keith, Byerl and Floerchinger (2006) found positive relationship on the academic performance and age of the students. However, Kaur, Chung and Lee (2010) found that age does not significantly contribute to academic performance of university students.
Tuttle (2004) found that students’ academic performance correlates with the family household income and their place of residence. Davis-Kean (2005) found in his study that educational attainment of the parents and household income are strong predictors of academic achievement. Acharya and Joshi (2009) found that parents’ education can affect the achievement motivation in academic area. Yousefi (2010), found that there is a relationship between family income and academic achievement of students.
The above stated research studies indicate that some demographic factors may affect academic achievement of students. It was hypothesized that some demographic factors may be significant predictors of academic achievement of students.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
At Colegio de Sebastian, where the research will be conducted, student applicants are selected based on specific academic criteria. Students should get a specific grade in the entrance exam in order to be admitted at Colegio de Sebastian.
Despite these standards and the selection process, on average, 15% of all the students failed their math, science and English subjects. This is not a troubling number of failures, but it does post the question, "Aside from intelligence, what factors are responsible for the inconsistency in the students’ academic achievement?" What causes a naturally intelligent student to either succeed or to fail in school? This is a question of great concern for many prospective and current students. It is also a concern for the faculty members who feel responsible for the students, and for the parents who have to pay the tuition fees. Myburgh, Grobler and Niehaus on Dambudzo (2009) state that there is an increasing awareness that individual difference in intelligence alone cannot be the sole factor for the students’ academic achievement.
One can conclude that besides intellectual ability, there have to be other factors that play a role in the learning and the academic achievement of students. Other important factors include the students’ interests, their involvement in different academic activities, how they perceive their interactions with their teachers, and what they feel and think about themselves with regard to the execution of academic activities (Sikhwari, 2004). Students’ attitude, their self-concept and motivation (Sikhwari 2004), self-determination (Mnyandu 2001), motivation, self-efficacy and perceived value (Nilsen 2009), stress and anxiety (Bester 2003), their socio-economic status, family obligations and parental involvement(Areepattamannil & Freeman 2008), and learning strategies (Rodriguez 2009) are also considered as contributing factors.
Research by McCoach and Siegle (2003) state that self-concept helps to predict academic achievement. They said that one third of the differences in achievement can be accounted for by academic self-concept.
Research findings seem to support the theory that consistent success or failure affects the individual’s self-concept, and that the level of academic achievement is influenced by an individual’s self-concept (Dambudzo 2009). Mwamwenda (1995) as cited in Dambudzo(2009) states that educators generally believe that for education to achieve its ultimate goal of developing the individual’s highest possible potential, an understanding of self-concept and what it involves is essential. Marsh 1990 as cited in Areepattamannil & Freeman (2008) declares that a higher self-concept is associated with greater academic achievement among students. There is also evidence to the contrary, namely that humble self-assessments are more conducive to academic achievement, according to Ocshe (2003), Yoon, Eccles and Wigfield (1996) and Trusty, Watts and House (1996). Despite a good number of research, there are no conclusive studies that clearly indicate the relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement (Sanchez & Roda (2003).
Marcus Credé and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany mentioned that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students. They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other non-cognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success.
Federal legislation’s No Child Left Behind (NCLB) stated that gender, ethnicity, and income level of parents can affect a student’s academic performance (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). The Texas State Board of Education (1994) noted in Quality, Equity, and Accountability: Long-Range Plan for Public Education (1991-1995), that boys usually perform better in math than girls and that girls usually read better than boys. The report also noted that White students perform better academically than Black and Hispanic students. According to the National Institute for Literacy (2001), other factors that dramatically affect a student’s academic performance include: (a) income level of the household, (b) whether or not there are both parents in the home, (c) and the number of siblings within a household. the report also stated that many times if there are several children in a household with limited income, the older children take care of the younger ones, in lieu of daycare. As a result, the older students’ school attendance is low and they may experience diminished academic performance. Often these absences will cause the school’s average daily attendance (ADA) to go down.
In the light of the above, the research question can be indicated as follows:
What is the socio-demographic profile of the Colegio de Sebastian students in terms of:
age;
gender;
size of the family;
ordinal position;
family living arrangement;
parents’ educational attainment;
parents’ occupation;
Socio-economic status?
How may the students be described in terms of their study habits:
Academic interest;
Academic drive;
Study methods;
Study anxiety;
Manipulation;
Alienation toward authority?
How may the students be described in terms of their self-concept:
Level of aspiration;
Anxiety
Academic interest and satisfaction;
Leadership and initiative;
Identification vs. alienation?
How may the students be described in terms of their academic achievement:
English;
Mathematics;
Science?
Is there a significant relationship between academic achievement and the students’ self-concept, study habits and socio-demographic profile?
Can self-concept, study habits and socio demographic profile predict the level of academic achievement of students of Colegio de Sebastian?
Hypotheses of the Study
There is a significant relationship between the students’ self-concept and academic achievement
There is a significant relationship between the students’ study habits and academic achievement
There is a significant relationship between the students’ Socio-demographic profile and academic achievement
Students’ study habits, self-concept and socio-demographic profile are predictors of the student’s academic achievement.
Conceptual Framework
Selected Factors
Socio-demographic profile
Study habits
Self-concept
Academic Achievement
Figure 1. Study Habits, Academic Self-Concept and Socio-Demographic Profile as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Colegio De Sebastian Students
Significance of the Study
Study habits, self-concept and socio-demographic status play a very important role in bringing about better academic achievement among students. The study could bring to light the importance of academic self-concept, study habits and socio demographic profile which are the major contributors of academic achievement.
The researcher believes that students, particularly of Colegio de Sebastian will be benefiting from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of the factors affecting their academic performance.
For school administrators, they may be guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning.
For school teachers, they will also understand better the diversity of learning styles of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter.
The Guidance and Counseling office will also benefit in this study by providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors affecting the students’ study habits. This increases the understanding of the Guidance Counselors on the interplay of the variables studied in this research. Such knowledge is hoped to help the guidance counselors towards the development and implementation of more effective programs in consideration of these variables.
The students will be given information on the factors affecting their academic performance.
For future researchers may be able to use the findings of the study as basis in conducting a similar study.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
The study will include all students of Colegio de Sebastian for the Academic Year 2013-2014.
The study will be confined to college students. Moreover, the study will be conducted only at Colegio de Sebastian.
Academic achievement will only include English, Math and Science subjects.
Definition of Terms
Self-concept: is defined by Shavelson et al. (1976:411) as "a person’s perception of himself formed through his experience with his environment". Self-concept is described by Klobal and Musek (in Baadjies 2008:) as an individual’s perceptions of him/herself; it is a psychological entity and includes one’s feelings, evaluations and attitudes, as well as descriptive categories. Thus, self-concept is a cognitive generalization about the ‘self’, which mostly includes self-descriptions of neutral values. By way of a formal definition, self-concept refers to the person’s total appraisal of his appearance, background and origin, abilities and resources, attitudes and feelings, which culminate as a directing force in behavior (Labenne & Greene in Baadjies 2008). In order to reach a common definition of self-concept, the researcher will make use of the definition by Shavelson (1976) of the self-concept. They indicate that self-concept is the perception that each person has of him or herself, formed from experiences and relationships with the environment, as well as with significant others. In this study, self-concept will be measured using Dimensions of Self-Concept by Michael, Michael and Smith.
Academic Achievement: indicates the numerical score of a student’s knowledge. It measures the degree of a student’s adaptation to schoolwork and to the educational system (Klobal & Musek in Baadjies 2008:3). Howcroft (1991:111) describes academic achievement in terms of the actual mark or score obtained in an examination or a test. In this study Academic achievement include the grade of the students in their Math, English and Science subjects.
Study habits: In this study, study habits refers to the activities like planning of work, reading and note taking habits, planning of subjects, habits of concentration, preparation for examination etc., carried out by learners during learning process which is measured by Study attitudes and Methods Survey by Michael and William B.
Socio-demographic Profile: In this study, socio-demographic profile includes the students’ age, gender, size of the family, ordinal position, family living arrangement, parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation and socio-economic status.
Students: In this study, it refers to the students of Colegio de Sebastian currently enrolled in the academic year 2013-2014
CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature
This chapter presents a pertinent information regarding academic achievement, and the factors affecting academic achievement namely: study habits, self-concept and socio-demographic profile. Furthermore a conceptual framework which was drawn from the literature will be presented.
Academic achievement
In this highly competitive world, academic achievement has become a key of a child’s future. Achieving High Academic achievement is one of the most important goal of education. It is also a major goal, which every individual is expected to perform in all cultures. Through Academic achievement, adolescents will learn about their talents, abilities and competencies which are necessary in developing their career aspirations (Lent et al. , 2000) academic achievement and career aspirations in adolescence are often correlated (Abu-Hilal, 2000).
What are the Factors Influencing Academic achievement?
Every student’s academic achievement may be affected by various factors like intelligence, study habits, different aspects of their personality, attitudes of the students towards school, peers, socio economic status, demographic profile, the school system among others. The desire to be successful is derived from individual’s concept of himself and in terms of the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eye of others. Thus a child who sees himself to be on top, as scholars, and as successful individual may set as his goal to achieve the highest grade in the class (Raju, 2013)
It has been found that the factors like parent’s education, parental occupation, type of family, family size, ordinal position and even gender and age of the child are found to have their impact on the academic achievement of every students. Studies dealing with the effect of family environment on student’s achievement suggest that several characteristics of family life are relevant.
What is study habit?
The efficient and effective way of learning depends upon the study habits of the students. Study habits are important as they influence the academic achievement of students. So parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of students. Some researchers have sought to determine what study habits are characteristically used by students when left to work by themselves with little or no direction. Teachers in schools should become facilitators of learning. The finite treasure within every learner should be discovered and nurtured for the purpose of improving learning effective study skills have to be taught. Study skills involve reference, reading listening, study habits and strategies. Learning improves with planning of where, when and how much to study. Positive attitude, proper physical condition and balanced emotional states are important factors influencing study habits (Crow and Crow, 1956). Some of such studies are reviewed in this chapter.
Study habit and Academic achievement
Aluede and Onolemhemhen (2001) studied the effect of study habit counseling on the academic performance of secondary schools students. Total of 108 senior high school students of Lumen Christ Secondary School in Nigeria was targeted. The study habit inventory (Bakare, 1977) was used as the instrument. The multi-stage stratified sampling method was used. The findings of the study shows that counseling students on good study habits can bring about improvement in the students’ academic performance.
Suneetha and Mayuri (2001) conducted a study on age and gender differences on the factors affecting high academic achievement of students. The total sample of the study comprised of 120 children of IX and X grade drawn purposively from 10 private schools of Hyderabad. Study habit inventory, Malin’s intelligence scale for Indian children, multidimensional assessment of personality inventory was used for data collection. The results showed boys and girls differed significantly in interaction, drilling, sets and language dimensions of study habit inventory.
Sirohi (2004) conducted a study of under achievement in relation to study habits and attitudes. A sample of 1000 elementary grade students were taken from schools of South District, Delhi. Tools used were general mental ability test by Jalota, teachers made achievement tests and test of study habits and attitudes by Mathur. The results found that guidance program shall lead to better results, improving the achievement of the students and thus their potentialities be maximally utilized.
Sud and Sujata (2006) conducted a study on academic performance in relation to study habits, self-handicapping, and test anxiety of high school children (n=200) from government senior secondary school of Himachal Pradesh. The scale used were self-handicapping questionnaire (Sujata, 2003) test anxiety inventory (TAT-H, Sud & Sud 1997). Study habits inventory (Palsane & Sharma 1989) and academic performance (school grades were considered). The results revealed that boys were poorer in study habits than girls.
Yenagi (2006) conducted a study on study habits a function of self-perception among intellectually gifted and non-gifted students. A sample of 1020 university college students was randomly selected from colleges in and around Hubli and Dharwad cities of Karnataka state. Study habit inventory by Patel (1976) and self-perception inventory Soars and Soars (1976) were considered for data collection. The results revealed that the overall study habit was significantly differed from gifted and non-gifted groups. General habits and attitudes, planning of subjects, reading and note taking habits, habits of concentration were also found to be significant.
The studies discussed above indicated that study habits has an influence on the academic achievement of students.
What is Self-concept?
The study of self-concept during adolescence is very important for several reasons. First, because of their growing autonomy and physical strength adolescents have a sense of freedom. It is interesting to study how they behave in such situations. Secondly, adolescents move both as children. Adolescent’s self-concept is built on limited experiences and it is hard for him to relate himself to change social world.
Self-concept and academic achievement
Barker, Dowson and McInery (2005) also pronounce that studies have repeatedly shown moderate to strong correlations between academic achievement and academic self-concept. Damrongpanit (2009) found an extremely strong relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in a study done on 820 Grade 9 students. In a another study done by Sikhwari (2004) on 200 randomly selected second year students at the University of Venda, it was found that there was a significant correlation between academic achievement and self-concept. Kumar (2001) indicated in a study on 318 distance learners that there exists a moderate positive and significant correlation between academic performance and academic self-concept.
Yenagi (2006) conducted a study on study habits a function of self-perception among intellectually gifted and non-gifted students. A sample of 1020 university college students was randomly selected from colleges in and around Hubli and Dharwad cities of Karnataka state. Study habit inventory by Patel (1976) and self-perception inventory Soars and Soars (1976) were considered for data collection. The results revealed that self-concept also showed significant difference between intellectually gifted and non-gifted groups.
Sood (2006) investigated the educational choice in relation to academic strees, achievement motivation and academic self-concept. There were 90 boys and 90 girls. They varied in age from 17 – 19 years. The tools used were sources of academic stress scale (Rajendran and Kalliappan, 1991), academic achievement scale (Deo & Mohan, 1985) and academic self-concept scale (Kumar, 1980). The results reported that students who had high achievement motivation had high academic self-concept.
Dambudzo (2009) declares that it is important to investigate the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in order to help those students who may be victims of their own negative beliefs about themselves. This statement is emphasized by Hamachek on Coetzee (2011) when he states that academic achievement may also be their perceptions of their abilities and not just simply be an expression of the students’ abilities. This positive perception of themselves may help them to feel confident and able, and negative perception cause them to feel hesitant and uncertain.
In conclusion, it can be deduced from the above that self-concept of abilities is an important variable in education.
From the above it is clear that research indicates a relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement. However, there has also evidence to the contrary; various studies have found no or a very small correlation between academic self-concept and academic achievement. These findings will be discussed below.
Vialle et al. (2005) did a study on 65 high-ability secondary school students. The sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of more than 900 students. The research demonstrated that there was no correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement of the students. There were no differences in the measured self-esteem between the students. Although the study by Vialle et al. (2005) focused on self-esteem and not on self-concept, both these constructs are very closely related and are often used as synonyms. Vialle et al. (2005) stated in their study that the terms, self-concept and self-esteem, are frequently used interchangeably in everyday contexts – and sometimes in the research literature.
It can be deduced from the above that although it is readily assumed by most educators that a correlation exists between academic self-concept and academic achievement, there exist contrasting findings in this respect. In this study the researcher will attempt to determine whether a relationship exists between academic self-concept and academic achievement in students.
What is Socio-Demographic Profile?
Pertains to the combination of sociological (relating to sociology) and demographic (relating to populations) characteristics of an individual.
Socio-demographic characteristics of a population expressed statistically, such as age, sex, education level, income level, marital status, family living arrangement, occupation, religion, birth rate, death rate, average size of a family, average age at marriage etc.
Socio Economic Status
The study on the effects of socio-cultural factors on psychological characteristics of individuals has become the attention in contemporary psychological research. Family incomes, education, place of residence are the major factors, which define a condition of social advantage or disadvantage. Under Indian social set up, ‘caste’ adds a unique and important dimension to it. It is widely acknowledged that a student’s academic achievement is influenced by his home and family background. Family income, socio economic status, education of parents, basic home amenities as well as cultural and psychological factors have all been studied for their influence on children’s academic performance, Narang (1987), Hunt 1978) and Bloom (1980). Although the relationship between socio cultural factors and educational attainment appears to have been firmly established in studies all over the world, the findings are not consistent with each other. Therefore, the research studies related to economic status and academic achievement have been reviewed.
Socio Economic Status and Academic achievement
Khan and Jemberu (2002) studied the influence of family socio economic status on educational and occupational aspirations of high and low achieving adolescents. The present study was an attempt to investigate the influence of socio economic status on the educational and occupational aspirations of adolescents. The sample consisted of 80 students, selected from four groups – middle status / high achieving, middle status / low achieving, lower status / high achieving and lower status / low achieving occupational and educational aspiration scales were administered for data collection and data were analyzed by means of ANOVA. Results showed that the impact of socio economic status on education aspiration was minimal, its influence an occupational aspiration was larger. Achievement highly influenced educational aspirations, but its impact on occupational aspiration was insignificant.
Devi and Mayuri (2003) reported that a study of family and school factors that affect the academic achievement of 9th and 10th grade students. The sample consisted of 120 children of Hyderabad city. The researcher developed an interview schedule to study the family factors, the questionnaire administered to the teachers was developed by the second author to study school factors. The result indicated that girls were superior to boys. Family factors like parental aspirations and socio economic status significantly contributed to academic achievement.
Thus, the studies discussed above have pointed out that better socio economic status better the academic achievement.
Parental education and Academic achievement
Felner et al. on Bailur (2006) revealed that students from families in which neither parent had graduated exhibited significantly worse socio emotional and academic adjustment compared to those students from families who were graduated. The sample consisted of 398 students of South Eastern United States. Instruments used were the family environment scale developed by Moas, Insel and Humpheys (1974), parents acceptance and rejection questionnaire developed by Rohner (1989), adolescents adjustment in terms of anxiety and depression were measured by the children’s De Manifest Anxiety Scale Revised (Reynolds and Richmond, 1978), the children’s depression inventory (Kovacs, 1981) and perceived competence scale (Harter, 1982).
Pal et al. (1996) studied socio-psychological factors, which promote student’s mathematics competence among urban and rural students. A sample comprised of 194 urban and 132 rural students was administered mathematics achievement test developed by National council of Educational Research and Training. It consisted of three parts. First part contained information regarding age, caste, parental education and occupation, family, gender etc. Second and third section measured Self-concept and locus of control respectively. The test of significance revealed that mathematics competence of urban students was positive and significant relationship between father’s education and mathematics competence. Urban students whose fathers had higher educational status performed better in mathematics.
Parental occupation and Academic achievement
Muller on Bailur (2006) examined how parental involvement intervenes in the relationship between maternal employment status and mathematics achievement in terms of educational adjustment of 8th grades. Data on 13,831 students and their parents from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS, 1988), base year and 1st year followed up were analyzed. The findings showed that part time employed mothers generally had the highest levels of involvement with their children. Children performed better on school when mothers were employed part time or not employed at all.
Singh by Gayatri (2007) studied on personality characteristics of school adolescents in relation to their mother’s employment. A sample of 200 students drawn from schools of Agra (Bihar) of age 18-21 years were in 100 students was of working mother’s group and 100 of housewives. Hindi adaptation of 16 PF questionnaires was used. The results revealed that students of working groups of mothers generally seemed to be out going, open minded, emotionally more stable, bold, venture some, adaptive to change, independent in decision making and active, while students of non-working group of mothers were found more reserved, less out going, emotional, shy, conservative, withdrawing, traditional oriented and depending.
Budhdev on Kamble (2009) conducted a study, which was designed to compare academic achievement among children of working and non working mothers studying in secondary schools of Saurashtra region. Sample included 307 girls of non-working mothers. Academic achievement of the children of working mother was greater than the children of non-working mothers.
Parental income and Academic achievement
The income of the family frequently determines the social status of a family. The children living in poor environment cannot develop their potentials and skills to the maximum level which do has a negative effect on their performance in school and achievements in social life, and well to do families show competence, higher cognitive abilities, and other similar skills. It was researched that poor children are behind in all the activities involving cognitive abilities than children from middle and upper section of the society.
Nagaraju et al. (2002) studied the study habits of 9th grade studentsin relation to certain sociological factors. Students in 9th grade were selected for this study. The total sample for final study was 460. Results revealed that fathers and mothers educational qualification have significant influence on the students’ study habits. Annual income of the family has no significant influence on the study habits of the students.
Size/Type of family and academic achievement
It has been found that the size of the family play an important role in the child’s academic performance.
Stella and Purushothaman on Mendezabal (2013) examined the study habits of underachievers. 90 underachievers from rural and urban schools in Tamil Nadu, India were selected by using randomized block design. Patel’s (1976) Study Habit Inventory was used for the study. The ‘t’ test indicated urban and rural students differ significantly in terms of their study habits. The mean value showed that urban students had better study habits than rural students. But found no significant difference between boys and girls on study habits.
Joshi (2000) made a study about extraversion, neuroticism and academic achievement in relation to gender and culture. 400 students of VIII class belonging to urban and rural area were chosen as the samples in the study. Eysenck’s personality inventory was used for data collection. Results showed a significant difference between boys and girls of rural areas on academic achievement.
Locale and Academic achievement
Sundaram on Pratibha (2006) studied urban and rural difference in achievement and achievement related factors such as self-concept, manifest anxiety, study habits, intelligence, adjustment problems and achievement motivation among college students. The sample of the study included 490 final year degree class students from 14 colleges of Madras University. Among 490 students, 291 were students from urban colleges and 199 from rural colleges. The ‘CR’ technique was used to know the difference between urban and rural students in achievement related variables. The results revealed that there was a significant (0.01) difference among urban and rural students in terms of their self-concept. Rural students had higher self-concept as compared to urban students. But there was no significant difference between urban and rural students with respect to study habits.
Ayishabi (1991) on Nuthanap (2007) studied biology achievement of scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste high school pupils. The study was conducted on 910 students of standard IX in Kerala, India selected through stratified random sampling method from rural and urban schools. Thus the sample consisted of 134 scheduled caste, 199 forward caste and 577 backward caste students. Biology achievement, verbal test of intelligence and socio economic status scale were used for the study. The scores were subjected to mean; SD and critical ratio. The results showed that backward caste students in biology achievement differed significantly on urban and rural sample.
Stella and Purushothaman on Sheikh (2012) examined the study habits of underachievers. 90 underachievers from rural and urban schools in Tamil Nadu, India were selected by using randomized block design. Patel’s (1976) Study Habit Inventory was used for the study. The ‘t’ test indicated significant difference between urban and rural students in respect of study habits. The mean value showed that urban students had better study habits as compared to students in the rural area. But found no significant difference was found between boys and girls on study habits.
Joshi (2000) made a study about extraversion, neuroticism and academic achievement in relation to gender and culture. 400 students of VIII class belonging to urban and rural area were chosen as the samples in the study. Eysenck’s personality inventory was used for data collection. Results showed a significant difference between boys and girls of rural areas on academic achievement.
Gender and Academic achievement
The performance of every individual is not equal. There is a lot of variability and dispersion. The variability cannot be attributed to a single factor, but it is the outcome of number of factors as intelligence, study habits, self-concept, creativity, aptitude interests, socio economic factors, area etc. Along with these gender of the child is also an influencing factor on Academic achievement of the child.
Singh on Akagah (2011) made a survey of the study habits of high, middle and low achieving adolescents in relation to their sex, intelligence and socio economic status and found that study habits of boys and girls differed significantly at different levels of academic achievement.
Vijayalaxmi and Natesan on Kulkarni (2013) studied factors influencing academic achievement from Coimbatore, a total of 100 students studying in the 11th grade were selected for the study of which 50 were girls and 50 were boys. The socio economic status scale developed by Vendal (1981) was used to assess the socio economic status of the participants. Scores obtained from the students’ major examination were used to assess the academic achievement of the subjects. Findings showed that girls had a higher mean academic achievement compared to boys.
However, Kaur and Gill on Sunitha (2005) revealed that achievement in English and total achievement was independent of sex, but boys scored higher than girls in achievement in Punjabi, Mathematics and Science.
Ahmed on Mithili et al (2004) reported that the influence of sex on achievement motivation was found to be statistically non-significant. He carried out a study on "Achievement Motivation differences among adolescent boys and girls of various ordinal positions. The study was over conducted on sample of one hundred and twenty students belonging to the age group of 13-18 years, studying in co-educated English medium institutions confined to the suburbs of Mumbai city. Shafi’s "Achievement Motivation Scale" was used for data collection. The find out the influence of various variables, the technique analysis of variance was used.
Ordinal position and Academic achievement
Ordinal position is another variable which affecting the academic achievement of students. The first born child occupies a sole position in the family structure. He is the only child and receives all the attention for at least a year and probably more. Due to the attention given by the parents and expected responsibility, one might expect the first born to have a high achievement motivation Taylor et al (2006).
Miner on Mokashi (2007) conducted a study to find if there is a relationship between the students’ birth order and their academic achievement. The results revealed that first born children and children in small families achieved a higher level than later born children in large families.
Munroe and Munroe on Mathur (2006) conducted a study on birth order and academic performance in three African schools. The sample consisted of 147 secondary school girls in the Gursii, kipsigis and logli tribal areas in Africa. The results indicated that Logli tribal areas in Africa. The results indicated that overall school grades and performance were negatively related to birth order in all the 3 school indicating that birth order was negatively related to Academic achievement of children.
Sputa et al. Horwood (2006) conducted a study on birth order and the influence of the size of the family on students and related parenting behaviors. Participants were 195 9th grade boys and girls and their parents from urban, suburban and rural communities in south east and Midwest Asia. Questionnaire measures of adolescent and parent’s perception of parenting style and parental involvement were used. Results showed birth order and family size influence adolescent academic achievement.
CHAPTER III
Methodology
Research Design
A quantitative approach is to be implemented in this study. Quantitative research designs maximize objectivity by using numbers, statistics, structure, and control (McMillan & Schumacher 2006). These designs make use of methods that are distinct from those used in qualitative designs. Qualitative designs emphasize gathering data on naturally occurring phenomena, and most of this data are in the form of words rather than numbers (McMillan & Schumacher 2006). In quantitative research, it is important for a researcher to distinguish between experimental and non-experimental research.
In this study a non-experimental research design will be used. This implies that there will be no direct manipulation of the variables by the researcher.
A descriptive survey research design will be implemented. A descriptive design is a study that focuses on and describes phenomena. The purpose of most descriptive research is limited to characterize things as they are (McMillan & Schumacher 2006).
In this study the researcher will aim to characterize the relationship that exists between self-concept, study habit, socio-demographic profile and academic achievement. And if the selected factors are predictors of the students’ academic achievement.
Population and Sample of the Study
All students will be considered as participants of the study enrolled in the academic year 2012-2013
Variables used for study:
The purpose of the study was to analyze self-concept, study habits and socio demographic profile and their influence on academic achievement. The independent variables selected for the study were study habits, self-concept and socio demographic profile. The dependent variable was academic achievement.
Tools used for data collection
The tools employed for the study are enumerated below:
Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC)
The Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC) is a self-report instrument for measuring non-cognitive factors that are associated with self-esteem or self-concept in the school setting.
The DOSC scales:
Level of aspiration
Anxiety
Academic interest and satisfaction
Leadership and initiative
Identification vs. alienation.
Study Attitudes and Methods Survey (SAMS)
SAMS was developed to explore students' motivation, study habits and attitudes toward school. The SAMS usefulness in determining non-academic obstacles to school success makes it a valuable preparation for college entrance as well as a counselling tool at the high school level. The results of the SAMS (in conjunction with an ability test) can be used to advise students of the probability of school success and point out areas that need improvement. Use the SAMS to help students improve study habits and replace non-productive attitudes with a more positive approach.
SAMS Scales:
Academic Interest- Love of Learning
The sheer pleasure gained by students in studying and in doing academic work, much like that experienced by the dedicated scholar who gains great satisfaction in working in the library, in writing papers and in reading the great books – an intrinsic motivation involving love of learning for its own sake.
Academic Drive – Conformity
A combination of both persistence, involving a high level of determination to succeed in academic work regardless of the amount of effort and time required and; a high degree of conformity in so far as it involves meeting institutional requirements and teachers’ expectations. A form of extrinsic motivation that will enhance the status and prestige of the student in academically oriented activities.
Study Methods
A systematic, organized, methodical, and well-planned set of working habits and procedures in meeting assignments and in taking examinations; effective study skills and techniques resulting in the optimal use of time and ability.
Study Anxiety
A marked concern over doing well in school assignments and examinations that reflects a lack of self-confidence and self-assurance; a tendency to be fearful that one’s level of competence in academic endeavors is not high enough, and to experience feelings of panic or even terror in taking examinations and in meeting the expectations of teachers and significant others in the academic setting.
Manipulation
An inclination to use power and influence to achieve one’s goals and to enhance one’s status even at the expense of the teacher to gain favorable treatment or special consideration.
Alienation Toward Authority
A feeling of being isolated or rejected in the academic environment manifested by hostility toward the academic institution and its members - teachers, administrators, and significant others as well as resentment and even defiance of rules and regulations.
Socio Demographic Questionnaire
A questionnaire developed by the researcher to determine the students’ socio-demographic profile.
4. Academic Achievement (Grades in English, Math and Science)
Refers to the tudents, average grade in their English, Math and Science subjects.
Data Gathering Procedures
Permission of the vice president for academic affairs of Colegio de Sebastian will be sought. Data will be collected from the total population of Colegio de Sebastian. Standardized psychological test and self-made questionnaire validated by certified psychometricians/assessment psychologist will be administered to students of Colegio de Sebastian.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data will be presented in frequency distribution table and will be analyzed using pearson r in order to determine the relationship of the variables. Furthermore multiple regression will be used in order to determine which factors are indicators of academic achievement.

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