According to Organ (1997); Rotundo & Sackett (2002), Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCB) are describes as a special type of work behaviours that defined as individual behaviours which promotes the goals of the organizations by contributing to the organization’s social and psychological environment. OCB requires that it is not recognized by the organization’s formal reward system directly or explicitly. (Organ, et al., 2006). It is contributed to the overall productivity of the organization as OCB are thought to have vital impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of work teams and organization.
In the earlier study, Smith, Organ and Near (1983), classified OCB into two dimensions which includes altruism, behaviours that specifically target on helping individuals and generalized compliance, behaviours that compliance with norms, general rules and expectations. Later, Organ (1988) indentified OCBs into five dimensions which include altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship. Williams and Anderson (1991), proposed the conceptualization of OCB into two dimensional which are OCB-I, citizenship bahaviours targeted at individuals compromising altruism and courtesy and OCB-O, citizenship bahaviours targeted at organizations compromising civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviours focus few types of behaviours such as:
Altruism - Selfless concern for the welfare of others workers,
- Help other workers who have been absent, or
- Help other workers who have very high workloads.
Courtesy - Take steps try to prevent problems with other workers,
- Does not abuse the rights of others workers.
Civic virtue - Attends meetings that are not mandatory but considered important,
- Keep update of changing in the organization.
Conscientiousness - Does not take extra breaks,
- Obey company rules and regulations even when no one is
Sportsmanship - Does not consume a lot of time complaining about trivial matters,
- Focus on positive side.
As in many organizations, the employees’ turnover rate is rather high and increasing in these few years. This high turnover rate had brings a lot of effect and has been a serious issues towards the organization. For instance, when the employees leave the organization, the company has to recruit and give training to the newly employed employees in order to train them to adapt to the new working environment and to gain a better work bahaviours and attitudes. Therefore this will increase the cost for the organization such as the advertisement cost for recruiting employees. As a result, it is vital for every employee in the organization to understand the Organizational Citizenship Behaviours and aware of how important they are to the organization. With this, the research will speculate among the inverse relationship between job satisfaction and retention of employees in the organization.
The Organizational Citizenship Behaviour with emotion model in restaurant industry is relatively related somehow to job satisfaction, organization commitment, turnover intention and absenteeism. The Organizational Citizenship Behaviour contains the courtesy, altruism, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship. In other words, with the courtesy of the job, the employees will be more committed to the organization and thus the intention to change job will decrease. Besides, with the high job satisfaction, absenteeism will then reduce among the employees as well. Luthans (1998) found that a satisfied employee is more likely to engage in pro-social behaviours in the organization in terms of being more cooperative, helping co-workers and customers. A satisfied employee is also more willing to represent the organization favourably to outsiders, and be conscientious in servicing the customers. In conclusion, it is assumed that an employee who finds job satisfaction would readily engage in citizenship behaviour.
1.2 Research Objective
The objective of this research is mainly to emphasize the effectiveness of organizational citizenship behaviours in business organization on the restaurant industry. It is also to examine the extent of restaurant employees exhibiting organizational citizenship behaviours in their workplace. Besides, organizational citizenship behaviours are focused much on management literature which indicates presently, especially the younger generation, which may not be as loyal and work committed to their company. It is important to examine the downturn economic situation as well as the willingness of employees to work more than expectation.
In order to carry out this research, the objective is formulated firstly, to investigate the level of organizational citizenship behaviours among various employees in the company. Secondly, to examine the factors which influence the employees to adapt to organizational citizenship behaviours. Since then, organizational citizenship behaviours are important for organization productivity which has long been recognized by practicing managers (Katzell & Yankelovich, 1975) and has improved organization effectiveness (Vigoda, 2000). Thirdly, with the research about the association between employees’ characteristics and organizational citizenship behaviours, we have better understanding on the factors that enable employees to engage in organizational citizenship behaviours. Fourthly, it is also to examine the different opinions among employees to adapt to organizational citizenship behaviours. The results of this study will identify how organizational citizenship behaviours affect contributions and performances of the employees’ productivity to the company.
1.3 Problem Statement
Employee commitment can reflect the varying combination of desired (affective), obligation (normative), and perceived cost (continuance). (Meyer and Allen, 1991). Meyer and Allen (1997) proposed that the behavioural implications of commitment would depend on the relative strength of the three components, however, the studies conducted to test the model have reported more otherwise. As a result, this has proposed to investigate how these various factors related to Organization Citizenship Behaviours (OCB). It is also important as there has been no previous study carried out focusing on restaurant industry and usually the restaurants are either fall in small or medium size industry.
1.4 Impacts of study
Impacts on Organizational Citizenship Behaviours are as follows:
To understand the importance of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviours in the competitive restaurant industry and the employees should be flexible to adapt to the situation.
During economic downturn, such as inflation, the organizations’ success may depend on the employees to work harder and more committed to the organizations.
During economic crisis, employees should give priority to their job and not being calculative, thus sacrificing time and work more effectively in order to bring benefits to the organization.
Impact on the employees is as follows:
This study can help the employees to be more committed and get involved in the practice of the Organizational Citizenship Behaviours.
This is useful practice for employees towards the advantage of working attitudes and behaviours in the Organizational Citizenship Behaviours.
Organizational Citizenship Behaviours involve the internalization of values about the effectiveness and importance of work which is worthwhile and beneficial to the employees.
The construction of job involvement is similar to organizational commitment which both are concerned with employees’ identification relating to work experience.
Impact of study on researcher is as follows:
Researcher have explored the construction of job involvement and approached into two different perspectives:
Viewed as an individual difference variable, job involvement is believed to occur when the possession of certain needs, values or personal characteristics predispose individuals to become more or less involved in their job.
View job involvement as a response to specific work situation characteristics. The types of jobs or characteristics of the work situation influence the degree to which an individual becomes involved in his or her job.
This study provides researcher with extensive knowledge and invaluable experience regarding the Organizational Citizenship Behaviours in the restaurant industry services.
Researcher would have better understanding on the factors that affecting the employees’ behaviour and attitude towards the organization.
1.5 Significance of Study
The organization rely on their employees’ performance of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) to help their colleagues with the problems, to enhance an organizational identification, organizational perceived support, organizational commitment and organizational justice (procedural justice and distributive justice). Therefore, many organizations have adapted OCBs by paying attention on the employees’ behaviours. If the employees’ behaviours are not scrutinized, it may cause numerous problems to the organization such as high absenteeism, high turnover, low performance of employees and low customer satisfaction. After perusing this research, readers will be equipped with a better understanding and knowledge regarding the importance and effect of OCBs to enhance employees’ performance in the organization.
In this research, it is targeted at one of the restaurant industry. By conducting a survey, the present negative economic situation such as economic recession and with the increase in petrol price, it is necessary to identify whether employees are work committed and factors that will affect and influence employees’ performance in order to enhance the performance of employees and their productivity.
Organization Citizenship Behaviours apply to the employees in the organization and defined as the readiness of the employees to work beyond expectation in their job with a positive attitude, influencing other employees to contribute their personal resources to the organization. Therefore, Organizational Citizenship Behaviours is beneficial to the organization.
In other words, the result of this study provides comparatively useful information for employees whether they apply to organizational citizenship behaviours in their workplace and give additional value to themselves and to the organization. Besides, it is hoped that this research can provide a better understanding to other researchers in future.
In this research project PappaRich Restaurant which is located in Dataran Sunway, Kota Damansara has been chosen as the main restaurant. Besides that, others restaurants are met in order to collect more accurate results. The results of our research will benefit the restaurant employer and employees thus increasing the performance of the employees.
One hundred and fifty (150) sets of questionnaires are supposed to be distributed to respondents in a few restaurants in Dataran Sunway, Kota Damansara. The present study contributes to the literature by exploring the relative effects organizational commitment, organizational justice (procedural justice and distributive justice), perceived organizational support and organizational identification. It is therefore reasonable assert that specific antecedent factors that give rise to OCB will dependent upon a variety of situational factors pertaining to the organizational and general environment context. Therefore, the researcher has a motive to do the research about the OCB in restaurant industry.
1.6 Chapter Organization
There are five (5) chapters in this research project. Firstly is introduction in Chapter One (1). In this section, it provides an overview of study context and explains the research problem. The Chapter Two (2) will consist of literature review. In this part, review on previous researchers regarding the factors affecting organizational citizenship behaviours.
Chapter Two (2) is consists the documentation of previous researchers. Literature review will help to set up a theoretical framework to provide a clear picture of the study. The researcher also has to choose the methodology to be used in this study which comes under Chapter Three (3).
Chapter Three (3) consist of the research methodology that is applied upon gathering the information to accomplish the research. The information collected will be compared and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (also known as SPSS). The researcher then will move into data analysis.
Chapter Four (4) is data analysis. The researcher is using SPSS software to assist to analyze the data. SPSS will automatically generate results when keying in data. The last chapter which is Chapter Five (5) includes discussion, recommendation and conclusion. The whole study includes interpretation and implication according to the outcome of the results.
The present researcher have provided and given some insight into the background of this research, research objectives, problem statement, impacts of study, significance study, chapter organization and chapter layout in the research. It will further discuss the chapters mentioned in the following part of the study to explain and analyse the findings in order to give a conclusion on the research.