A Meta Description Logics Knowledge Base English Language Essay

Published: 2021-07-02 23:05:06
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1. Centre Universitaire de N�ama, 2.Universit� Djillali Lyebes SBA.
1. [email protected], 2. [email protected]
Description Logics (DLs) are
successful knowledge representation
formalisms, which can be used to represent the
terminological knowledge of an application
domain in a structured and formally wellunderstood
way. They are employed in various
application domains, such as natural language
processing, configuration, and databases .Sf.
In this work we try to use this
performance of DL systems to describe a Meta
knowledge base defining the classes of the
word in Arabic language and relation between
them. This can be useful for syntactic
categorisation of sentences which is very
important for automatic language processing.
Description logics, Arabic language
processing, knowledge representation, Meta
knowledge base.
From the linguistic point of view, the
language processing involves distinct levels
namely: the lexical level, syntactic level, the
semantic and pragmatic level. All these levels
contribute to the representation of semantic
information. Thus, the role of lexicology
becomes very productive since the meaningful
representation of the lexicon is provided, and
this helps the syntactic and semantic rules to
become easier. Dixon 1991 in his work on
syntax-based semantics, has proved that the
irregularities and idiosyncrasies can be
predicted from the semantics of words [01].
This aspect of idiosyncrasy (meaning
non-regular behaviour) leads us to think of a
heuristic treatment in order to manipulate these
syntactic elements which can drive to a kind of
classification. The latter facilitates the isolation
and segmentation of the sentences in a text
according to their meaning as a criterion of this
The powerful knowledge
representation formalism of description logics
is providing an expressive tool which can be
useful to create a Meta-knowledge base. This
part of the knowledge base can be used as an
add-on for ALP systems. It can also be
considered as a tool for searchers on the Arabic
language processing that provides a description
for the totality of the Arabic words.
The description can be summarized in
creating hierarchy classes of the Arabic word
that provides a dependency graph based on the
ISBN: 978-0-9853483-3-5 �2013 SDIWC 254
subsumption relationship, and in this way we
define the first part of the KB which we called,
at this level, the Meta-Box and by the totality
of words existing in the Arabic Word-Net
ontology we define the second part including a
terminological and assertional Box.
In the Beginning, it is important to
understand the notion of the natural language
processing (NLP) which is defined in literature
as: �[....] a theoretically motivated range of
computational technique for analyzing and
representing naturally occurring texts at one or
more levels of linguistic analysis for the
purpose of achieving human-like language
processing for a range of tasks or
applications�[02]. This definition leads us to
think about the levels of representation and
especially on the syntactic categorisation
which can carry the roles and definitions to
construct meaningful representation of each
word within the language.
For the Arabic language, the word has
a role in a sentence and this role can be
detected by the classification of the word
syntactically, the fact which guides us to think
about well-understood way of representations.
Since the description logics are regarded as a
structured and formally well-understood way
that uses representation languages as the KLOne;
�Since the days of the KL-One system,
one of the main application of description logic
has been for the semantic interpretation in
natural language processing� [03].
We aim in this representation at
facilitating the semantic interpretation inspired,
inthis way, by the fact that �semantic
interpretation is the derivation process from the
syntactic analysis of utterance to its logical
form�[03]. The lexical part becomes more and
more important because we can begin the
semantic integration from the lexical level by
introducing a lexical semantic which means the
specification of the semantic of each concept.
The use of DLs formalism to describe
a Meta knowledge base using the syntactic
roles of the Arabic word aims at constituting
the lexical semantic part of the knowledge base
which is not newly utulized; since we find, for
instance, in the literature �a part of the
knowledge base constitutes the lexical
semantic knowledge, relating words and their
syntactic propertied to concept structures [...],
giving a deep meaning to concept� [03].
The architecture we propose here is
basically constituted of two parts, the first one
contains the high level knowledge giving the
lexical and syntactical semantics. The second
one gives the ordinary description of concepts
(words) constructed as a KB built from the
Word-Net Arabic ontology.
ISBN: 978-0-9853483-3-5 �2013 SDIWC 255
Fig 01: System Architecture
In the traditional DLs systems �A
knowledge base (KB) comprises two
components, the TBox and the ABox. The
TBox introduces the terminology, i.e., the
vocabulary of an application domain, while the
ABox contains assertions about named
individuals in terms of this vocabulary� [04].
However; the addition of the Meta-
Box in the present system (fig 01) can be
considered as a consolidation for the traditional
system. This fact makes the introduction of the
syntactic role of the term (concept) with its
definition possible and ti is implicitly defined
in the class of the word which is integrated by
establishment of the link between the Meta-
Box and the T-Box using the relation of the
subsumption. Since all the terms existing in
Word-Net Arabic ontology can be a subsumed
by a concept among the Meta-Box concepts
either directly or indirectly.
The T-Box / A-Box are traditionally
constructed by the translation of definitions in
the Ontology of concepts and their relations to
DLs knowledge base defined using the KLOne
description language.
The word in Arabic language can be
viewed as an occurrence of a node of a
dependency graph representing a hierarchical
organization of the classes existing for the
syntactic roles as following : the word is called
in Arabic �Kalima�, this model includes the
three nodes which are �Fiil� (verb) , �Ism�
(noun) , and �harf� (propositions, conjunctions
and so on). And all of these terms have
dependency with others to create the hierarchy
of concepts. (see fig 02)
Global T-BOX
ISBN: 978-0-9853483-3-5 �2013 SDIWC 256
Fig 2: Hierarchy of Syntactic Roles of Words in Arabic Language
This hierarchy have been inspired from
a lecture in the Arabic documentations
especially the poems of el ADJROUMIA and
ELFIAT IBN MALEK; but for the sake of
semantic implementation we have focused on
the classes which influence the meaning and
the use of the word in sentences. In order to
realize this graph in fig 02 we use the same
techniques of the dependency graph
construction known as a graphic representation
which is �a sample dependency graph in which
word nodes are given in bold face and
dependency relations are indicated by labelled
In this proposition the relation
represented by edges is �IS A� which is
interpreted as subsumption in DLs terminology
or subset in the interpretation of DLs in set
theory seeing the concepts as a set of
The graph in the fig 02 here can reflect
the concepts of the Meta-Box and the relation
between them, the thing that helps in defining
the axioms and constructing the Meta-Box
which is the essential part because of the
meaningful representation given implicitly
with the specification of the syntactic roles of
each word defined in the second part. We
present here the description in the KL-One
language written and constructed for the
definition of this first level part of the global
knowledge base
ISBN: 978-0-9853483-3-5 �2013 SDIWC 257
fig 03: A Sample of the Meta-Box Described in KL-One
The relations existing in the linguistic
Word-Net Arabic are known and limited in an
ultimate number. We find eleven (11) relations
namely: Antonym, synonym, Meronym
(inverse of holonym), hyponym, implication
(entailment), causality, value, has as value,
affinity, derived from, similar to. All of these
relations can be interpreted By DLs language
using the known constructors and quantifiers
and we propose these interpretations as
following: [6, 7, 8]:
Antonym: in DLs it becomes disjunction
Synonym: in DLs we replace it by equivalent
Meronym: interpreted as a restriction or role.
Hyponym: X is a hyponym Y interpreted X is
subset of Y or X is subsumed by Y.
Implication: Y imply X means logically
disjunction between negation(Y) and X
(Neg(Y) U X)
Causality: using roles
Value: assertion
Has As Value: assertions
Affinity: restrictions
Derived From: Y derived from X means
logically disjunction between Negation (X)
and Y (Neg(x) U Y).
Similar To: equivalence
We note here, in this second level, that
we have to define two parts: the first is
terminological and the second is assertional but
we can say that there is causality between the
interpretations of the relation existing and the
position of each possible word defined in
Word-Net Arabic in each one of the two parts.
And this is clear because the word is well
ISBN: 978-0-9853483-3-5 �2013 SDIWC 258
defined if we can represent all its relations
linking the current word with all the others, in
another way, in DLs terminology the concept
is well defined if we reach a level of
representation in which all relationship with
others concepts are represented that means the
encapsulation of all the elements of the set of
individuals concerned by the definition of the
The classes defined in the Meta-Box
are the collection of what can an Arabic word
means because it is a high level categorization
of the terms and in this way, we can be sure
that all concepts existing in the TBox of the
second level are included in one at least of the
bottom concepts of the Meta-Box and it can be
considered as an assertion in this level; but
globally, the Global Terminological Box GTBox
is divided into two part the Meta-Box and
the T-Box. However; the Global Assertional
Box is similar to the assertional Box (see fig
01). We mathematically represent all this as:
In this work, we arrived to evaluate an
idea which is new in the domain of Arabic
language processing and especially for the DLs
based systems. This idea consist to create an
add-on which we named the Meta-Box for the
purpose of getting richer lexicology integrating
syntactic roles with the definition of every
word existing in the Arabic linguistic ontology
named Word-Net.
As results we define a new architecture
for ALP description logics based system with
enlarged knowledge base in where we have the
traditional representation consolidate with
other knowledge integrated to enhance
efficiency, expressivity and the use cases of
this Global KB. This letter is designed to be a
useful tool for all kinds of treatments and
manipulations existing in the ALP domain as
the question answer systems, the automatic
translation, the text summarization, SF.
We propose to evaluate the GKB an
automated sentences segmentation which can
provide a lot of efficiency for the ALP
applications especially for the case of
automated translation and text segmentation.

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