A Logical And Systematic Review Media Essay

Published: 2021-08-11 05:00:05
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The focal point of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural impact of television on youth of Rohtak & Jhajjar Districts. Literature review revealed that one of the major concerns amongst the researchers all over the world was the amount of exposure to television and its impacts on the society. The impact of television’s incessant presentation of social roles is sometimes a problem for cultures that differ in their values from the place where these programmes originate. Ideas about family, interaction, marriage, gender, sex and roles are not the same as projected in television programmes as they are within the native country.
The following section presents a review of the results of relevant studies conducted in various countries and exposes that there has not been any similar research conducted in India.
Kennedy (1997) in his study on television and society analyzed the negative aspect of television. The author said that every day millions of adults, children, teens and elderly fall into a type of comatose state induced by hours of watching television. Most people do not realize that this state is destroying our lives, which is ruining our families and hindering our psychological health. Given the average viewing time per day, per home is six hours 47 minutes and the statistics and effect of television watching, it is easy to understand however viewing habits are hindering our health. Not only is watching television psychically and mentally detrimental, but also time consuming. 1
Steiner (1963) in his famous study "The people look at Television" made a national survey of 2427 T.V. viewers to find out as to what does the phenomenon of T.V. means to the American people? What place has it come to occupy in their lives and finally how does the T.V. caters to their needs of amusements, relaxation and information. The finding of the study shows that the American viewers have come to depend on T.V. for their daily viewing. But the viewers are neither overwhelmed nor disgusted. The viewers on the whole feel that the T.V. should provide educational information but its main function should be entertainment. It was found that the people turned to newspapers and radio for seeking serious and detailed information but they turned to T.V. only for relaxation and diversion.2
Comstock (1978) made a study on the impact of T.V. on American Institutions and tried to find out the manner in which the T.V. has brought about changes in the social and political and other aspects of life. The findings suggest that T.V. works as an agent of socialization in making the children learn new way of behaviours and accept new values about religious life. T.V. has revolutionized, as the author suggests, the leisure environment of Americans by effecting both the allocation of time as well as the option for the disposal of time. The T.V. as, it further suggested, has also affected the political events both as a determinant of voting and a source of political information.3
Hargreaves (1979) examines the type of impact the T.V. news have on the audience. Many people, as the author opines, think that the T.V. news are shallow, superficial and short. This is not the case according to the findings of the study. The T.V. news directly enter in the minds of the individual viewers from the tube, therefore according to the author, the average member of the T.V. public absorbs more information from the T.V. then from the newspapers. Further, as the author argues that since the newspaper is divided into several sections even the serious readers of the newspaper receive small proportion of the real information than they get from the T.V. news programmes.4
Churchill (1979) made a study on television and interpersonal influences on adolescent’s consumer learning. He attempted to find out the variables responsible for the development of the materialistic values and social motivations for consumption among adolescents. He found out those variables such as age, sex, birth order, socio-economic status (S.E.S), T.V. viewing, peer communication and family communication about consumption influenced the adolescent learning habits towards media comsumption.5
Jha and Sinha (1979) conducted a study in some of the residential colonies of Delhi to find out the viewpoints the viewers have towards the T.V. programmes and also their preferences for the T.V. programmes. The authors suggest that majority of the viewers were dissatisfied with T.V. programmes. This level of dissatisfaction was higher amongst the women as compared to men. The majority of the respondents described that the T.V. should provide them more entertainment and less information and education. As far as the preference of the viewers towards T.V. programmes is concerned, the findings point out that the Chitrahaar emerged as the most preferred programme followed by Phool Khila Hai Gulshan-Gulshan. In case of informational programmes, the news in Hindi was most liked programme followed by the news in English, our guest and the current affairs. In case of educational programmes the first place was given to Zara Sochiye followed by Aap Ki Sehat.6
Comstock (1980) made a study to understand the interaction between the television and American society. In terms of demographic variables, T.V. viewing is greater among the lower socio-economic groups. Education was found to make more difference in T.V. viewing than income. Similarly, older people watch more T.V. as compared to younger adults because of the free retirement time available to them. But out of all, the women watch T.V. most because of their proximity to T.V. Commenting on the effects of T.V. on American society, the author is the opinion, that T.V. has destroyed and changed all other media communication. The author concludes that of all the media, T.V. has been most successful breaking the barriers of literacy, income and geographical isolation. It has, in a way, exposed the viewers to a type of common experiences and understanding and thus the T.V. has created a type of electronic culture.7
Jackson Beech et.al (1980) in their study found out that T.V. heavy viewers are likely to be removed from the main stream society. Further the authors came to the conclusion that the heavy viewers rarely participate in clubs, sports and other social activity compared to the average T.V. viewers. Indeed the authors emphasise that the T.V. is related to pessimism and the feelings of anomie.8
Eastman et. al. (1980) studied 9 to 12 years children’s in four parts of U.S.A. with the object to find out the preferences of the children to the T.V. programmes. The findings suggest that all American children tend to have the same types of preferences toward the T.V. programmes and thus it shows that the T.V. is a prime agent of producing similar experiences among the children belonging to the different parts of U.S.A. Secondly, the finding indicate that the children choose the favourite characters of T.V. on the basis of sex dimensions. Lastly, an important finding is that the children’s preferences have not much changed in the recent years.9
Hansra and Chauhan (1980) conducted a study on television and the youth elite. The main objectives in his study were the audience profile of youth programmes telecast from Jallandhar and the reactions of college students towards the youth programmes. The finding indicated that 78 per cent of the respondents were aware of the days of telecast; 92 per cent respondent aware about the duration of the telecast and 87 per cent were aware about the time of telecast of programmes. Further regarding the reason for viewing youth programmes it indicated that 99 per cent of the respondent viewed the programmes for gaining knowledge; 23 per cent and 2 per cent of the respondents viewed them for entertainment and merely to kill time respectively.10
Churchill (1981) made a study on the way the parental viewing patterns influence the children’s viewing behaviour and their perception about violence. The authors do not find in the first instance the relationship between the amount of time parent and children spent with television and the perception of violence as the author suggests, can be explained by their age and sex. The younger children generally think that it is all right to hit someone when you are angry which was not seen in the case with the older children. Similarly, the boys were found to be more prone toward violence as compared to the girl’s.11
Cook et. al. (1983) carried out a study on the impact of T.V. programmes on children to find out how far the T.V. violence causes aggression was based on the argument that the T.V. mostly reinforces the already established beliefs and behaviours. The author does not support this argument and suggest that aggression amongst the children is not merely caused by T.V. violence but also a function of socialization and home environment.12
Johnson (1984) conducted a study on English and Australian youth’s to find out the role of T.V. in their lives. The author argues that it is not the content that is central to the social role of T.V. but the ‘form and the mode of operation’. The youth’s was found to make different uses of the T.V. programmes according to their respective cultures. The findings suggest that these differences can be explained in terms of the relationship between the culture of home and school. For those whose home and school culture was roughly the same, they treated T.V. viewing as a cultural experience. On the other hand, for those youth’s whose home culture differed markedly from school culture, they treated the T.V. viewing as providing a set of themes which they could use to resist the school culture and also to reflect its legitimacy.13
Atkin (1984) studied the way alcohol advertising on the T.V. influenced the drinking habits of adolescent’s. The findings of the study indicate that those adolescents, who were highly exposed to T.V. alcohol advertisements consumed more alcohol as compared to those who were less exposed to T.V. alcohol advertisements. Further, the study shows that the advertisement of alcohol consumption by peer groups tended to influence beer drinking and whereas the advertisement of alcohol consumption by parents tended to encourage wine drinking.14
Sirgy et. Al. (1998) reveals in study that television viewership influences materialism and dissatisfaction with the standard of living, which in turn contributes to feelings of dissatisfaction with life. The result shows that television viewership may play a significant role in making people unhappy with their lives. 15
Das (1987) in his study of consumer behaviour in television: A case study in Kurukshetra. The main objectives of the study were to investigate into different brands models and screen size of T.V. by the people of five different social classes, the influence of family advertisement and different factors considered at the time of purchase by the respondents of five social classes on consumer behaviour and various differences in buying among different social classes; problem faced by them due to T.V. in the house; and the difference in opinion about the long term effect of T.V. among five different social classes. He used questionnaire method. The study revealed that with total sample of 100 respondent, 64.67 per cent T.V. owners were influenced by their family members; 12.67 per cent by friends; 7.33 per cent by neighbours and 15.33 per cent by dealers and other to purchases T.V. Each individual about the long term effect of T.V. 69.33 per cent viewed that it resulted in weekend eye sight, 34.00 per cent opined that due to the presence of television in the house family members get less time for exchange of ideas, 29.33 per cent opined television was the better informer; 28 per cent opined television in the house made people introvert; 20.00 per cent opined television create more social consciousness.16
Shah et. al. (1988) conducted a study on impact of television on students in term of gain in knowledge; changes in opinions regarding family relationships and household management; change in the amount of time spent by them on household and outside activities. The sample of study constituted 75 third year students of the Institute of Home Economics, Delhi. Tools used were a check list about film oriented programmes, educational programmes, serials, documentaries, advertisements and other entertainment programmes like youth form, plays etc. on the basis of these programmes a final questionnaire having two sections was constructed. The impact of T.V. viewing on the respondents in tern of change in their opinion was not so significance. However, it was observed that television viewing had more impact on introverts, average achievers and conservative students in terms of change in opinion and gain in knowledge. The study concluded that the T.V. programmes should be prepared in such a way that they may suit all categories of people like children, youth, adults, old man and women and at the same time people should explore the potential of T.V.as a versatile medium giving educational programmes and mass entertainment programmes.17
Sharda (1989) studied the impact of television on rural areas. The main objectives of the study were to know the general impact of television on rural masses and to see whether there is any relationship between the socio-economic background of the sample and their degree of exposure to television. The interview schedule method was adopted and the study showed that an overall exposure to television is satisfactory among the rural masses. The study also indicates that T.V. has not affected movie-goers every people have to visit nearby cinema halls to watch movies.18
Mohansundaram et. al. (1990) in their study of television impact on the family studied the reaction and responses of the children to the programmes telecast. The study shows that the impact of such programmes as films, songs, serials and advertisements has been so powerful that it was very difficult to divert the children to regular studies. Many parents confess that they bought the television set to watch the cricket matches and the world of sports to prevent their children from frequently going to the neighbouring houses for watching programmes. They further said that television is rendering a great service though it has to rectify many things in order to improve the quality of the programmes.19
Mehrotra (1991) studied the impact of television viewing on household activities in Ludhiana city. The main objectives of the study were to get positive and negative views about television viewing and the household activities rescheduled homemakers in India to view television. Most of the respondents devoted 1-3 hours of time for television viewing. The negative views held by homemakers about television viewing. It was reported by about 63% of the homemakers that television viewing resulted in wastage of time. It gives unwanted exposure to children was stated by 81% of respondents of the homemakers.20
Gangadharappa (1991) conducted a study on impact of afternoon T.V. programmes on Housewives in Dharwad city. The main objective of the study was the preference and opinion of housewives in regarding to the T.V. programmes and the impact of afternoon program. He used and interview schedule. The study revealed that a majority of 78 per cent of the respondents preferred afternoon transmission to morning and evening transmission. This is because housewives after attending to cooking and other household chores find they free and have ample time for relaxation. So that they watch afternoon programmes without any hindrance, and most of the respondents 72 per cent watched afternoon programmes regularly and rest were occasional viewers. Further it was found that majority of 80 per cent of regular viewers belonged to the age group of 20 to 40 years; whereas occasional and rare viewers were largely of 41 years and above.21
Cosby (1992) conducted a study on the influence of television imagery on selected African-American young adult’s self perceptions. The main objectives were to determine the possible influence of particular television imageries of African-Americans on the self perceptions of selected young adult, ages between 18-25 years, and no specific aspects of self addressed by particular imageries. The author used interview method. The main finding was the television images are likely to have negative influences on self perceptions of the young African-American viewers. Moreover, the judges overwhelmingly agreed that degrading stereotypes are the major likely influences on self. Thirty hours interviews with ten African-American adults revealed that the subjects differed in their perception of the possible influence of the television programming on their self perceptions. Although differences in perceptions existed, only one respondent perceived all television episodes to have negative influences, except for the hybrids. Many of the episodes were viewed as having the potential for positive and negative influences. The judges perceived the television imageries to be negative. Yet the young African-Americans who were interviewed intended to see the same imagery as being positive. This difference in perception among different generations of African-Americans may be attributed to thoughts about humour and ridicule. Also, the limited life experiences of those being interviewed may influence their critical consciousness and thus contribute to the tendency to be more tolerant of the possible negative impact the images may have on their views of themselves. The television industry must join the effort to make education at more positive and powerful means for equality in our democracy.22
Singh et. al. (1992) conducted a study about the effect of television viewing upon youths of Doon Valley. The main objective of the study was to find out the effect of programmes and advertisements upon life pattern, women’s right, status of women, family planning and social changes. The sample consists of 50 male and 50 females of M.K.P. (P.G) Girls of D.A.V. (P.G) Boys College, Dehradun respectively. He used questionnaire method. The study indicated that vital role of television programmes especially in family planning, women’s right, equality, dowry evils and environment improvement etc. But it enhances the awareness more than action. Only those advertisements are effective which are small, lively and deals with youths immediate psychological needs.23
Bhasha (1992) conducted a study on the impact of television violence on teenagers. The main objective of this study was to find out the impact of viewing television violence and behavioural violence of teenagers. The sample consists of 40 boys and 40 girls studying in senior/junior College located in Tirupati town of Chittor District (Andhra Pradesh). An interview schedule and teacher rating scale were administered to the sample. The results indicate that television viewing behaviour has no relation with student’s violent behaviour.24
Chauhan (1992) conducted a study on social structure and the objectivity of television news suggested that the use of T.V. news by government for creating favourable images about it is not correct. The majority of the college students 60.05 % felt that the T.V. news are as objective ass that of the newspapers. It was found that the social structure does not influence those who have high level of media exposure. The respondents who have high level of media exposure also think more strongly that the T.V. news are equally objective if not more; then those published by the newspaper. The findings suggested that T.V. is still on independent activity in India. The important reason may be that the T.V. being a new arrival in the Indian condition, people still thinks of the more as a medium of entertainment than as a source of serious information.25
Aggarwal (1993) studied in Shimla city about the impact of cable T.V. on social life. The main objective was the popularity and the possible effects of cable T.V. on social life of people in terms of certain demographic variables. The study was conducted through questionnaire. The study revealed that more than three fourth of the respondents watch cable T.V. keeping in view their convenience 28 per cent adolescents and 26.53 per cent youngsters take out special time. It may be further observed that 76.92 per cent children and 84.00 per cent adolescents prefer to watch T.V. in the evening. Late night movies are seen by adolescents (60%) and children (46.15%).26
Murthy (1994) conducted a study on student’s preference for DD and ZTV programmes. The main objectives of the study were the impact of ZTV on Doordarshan and to conduct a comparative study of the revision for viewers preference programmes telecast on both Doordarshan and ZTV. The main findings of the study were a majority of 56% admitted that entertainment was the main purpose of their watching T.V. programmes with only 40% opting for the educational values and a microscopic majority of 4% watched for information gain.27
Ninan (1995) has reflected on the reactions of diverse groups of people to a variety of instances from TV shows and observes that, "The tension between TV depictions and their reaction only reflected, in a sense, the contradictions in a rapidly changing Indian society, where new mores were emerging even as old values remained entrenched. And women, both on the box and in the home, were often at the centre of this uneasy coexistence.28
Chompaisal (1995) analyses the influence of television on the achievement of children and adolescents in Thailand. The main objective was to examine the perceived influence of television viewing on the school achievement of children and adolescents in Thailand. He used survey questionnaire composed of three parts, the self administered questionnaire, the motivation questionnaire and demographic questionnaire. The main findings were Thai children and adolescents spend an average of 21 hours in a weeks viewing television, students spending fewer hours in viewing television have higher school achievement. The parents monitoring television viewing contribute to better school achievement.29
Unikrishnan and Bajpai (1996) covered 730 children, some of their parents, teachers, experts and advertisers during their field work in Delhi and studied the extent to which advertising shapes the consciousness of children; what they are learning from television; and whether television advertising is establishing a social and consumption agenda for children to follow. The study reveals the excitement and the confusion created in the minds of children by what they see on the small screen. It explains that the manner in which children negotiate TV information and advertising messages varies according to their socio-economic background.30
Saksena (1996) observes that the availability of multi-channels and multi-national television in India has given rise to a much more discriminating, perceptive, demanding viewership. Instead of blaming it on the TV, it is for the viewers to be specific about their choices as different channels cater exclusively to different tastes and preferences. The viewers are not necessarily dependent any longer on what the TV offers, but they can pick and choose what they want to view.31
Karla and Kalra (1996) studied the impact of cable TV viewing on adolescents. The study was conducted in four colonies of Ludhiana city in Punjab covering a sample of 150 adolescents in the age group 13-19 who had cable TV connections in their homes. The author point out that the media invasion has triggered off a number of unhealthy trends in the society. It has even interfered with social mingling and family bonds. The ‘Villain’ has driven guests away and injected lethargy into the youth and students. Studies have gone out of gear and the ocular, physical and mental health of the ‘Victims’ have been affected. The authors point to the special responsibility of the parents in curtailing the negative effects of cable TV.32
Midson (1997) conducted a study on television viewing habits of children in Virginia, Africa. The main objective of the study was the viewing habits of young children. The study indicated that approximately 50 per cent of the children were watching television with their parents and primary caregivers. The study also discovered that while 65 per cent are allowed to watch television during breakfast, only 35 per cent are allowed to occasionally watch during dinner. Out of the three classes, nearly 30 per cent have their own television in their bedrooms, and the average is two or more per household. Due to the fact that the data was collected from a rural population, there may be slight chance that some homes may not have access to cable, therefore, the children would not have knowledge of some programmes that are available, which would narrow their choices. Further, the author said while conversations with the children. It was discovered that many of them supplement their television viewing with video that are either rented or purchased.33
Kang (1997) studied the television influence on cultural and societal values among Japanese’s students. The purpose of this study was to describe some possible elaborations of the cultivation hypothesis and present relevant evidence from Japanese student sample. The central hypothesis of the study is that the grater television viewing is associated with change in Japanese student’s attitudes toward some aspects of cultural and societal values in terms of sex role, family and perceived reality of television. The finding of the study points to the striking differences between male and females on traditional gender roles, norms and values. For male greater television viewing goes with a protective attitude toward traditional women’s role in Japan. By contrast, male are significantly more likely to endorse strict adherence to traditional norms about obeying parents, talking about unrestricted dating and match making marriage.34
Hadique et al (1998) in their study on T.V. viewing time pattern of School Children. The result revealed that boys who posses T.V. and do not posses. Television at home devotes more time to study but compared to boys & girls in both the sub groups read newspaper, comics, magazines etc. more. It may be due to the fact that girls like to spend their time indoor more than outdoor. Girls possessing T.V. indulge in certain activities like play and hobbies more than boys. But in the subgroups of the girls devote more time in play. It is also found that girls who did not possess T.V. at home watch more T.V. programmes as compared to boys. One of the reasons for doing this due to their preference to discuss the programmes with their friends. In case boys, it is the opposite that boys who do not possess T.V. at home they prefer to play in place of T.V. programmes.35
Kaur (1999) in her study influence of television on social life. The study was conducted in two districts of Punjab namely Faridkot and Hoshiarpur. The researcher studies the impact of television viewing on four aspects of namely social life, social mobility, social services and fulfilment of social responsibilities. The sample of 200 literate and 200 illiterate rural adult peoples were randomly selected and their perception towards television viewing studied. The study indicated that the viewing of television programming by rural adults enhanced their social mobility and social maturity and activated them for social service but it adversely affected their fulfilment of social responsibilities. The extent of impact of television viewing on rural adults is related to their literacy, sex and viewing time.36
Gaikwad (2000) conducted a study on parental views: the effects of television viewing on their children’s interests and activities. 200 parents of elementary school going children (9-12 years) were personally interviewed based on survey schedule. Majority of the respondents were multiple television channels viewers and spent two to two and a half hours time on television viewing. Majority of the parents reported that television viewing had tremendous impact on their children’s interests and abilities.37
Yanovtzky (2001) conducted a study on mass media, social norms and health promotion efforts: a longitudinal study on media affects on youth binge drinking. The main objective of the study was the validity of a norm-reinforcement approach as a complementary model to direct media effects on health behaviour change, focusing of news coverage effects on youth binge drinking between 1978and1996; they hypothesized that the media may have contributed to reduction in this behaviour by increasing perceptions of social disapproval. The predicting power of this approach was then compared with that of other plausible models (namely a direct media effect model and a model proposing media effects that are mediated by policy actions). The main findings of the study were that two separate tests (a time series regression and the idea-dynamic method) suggest that although a direct route of medias effects on binge drinking behaviour produced evidence of null affects, there was evidence that the impact of news stories on this behaviour was mediated by policy actions as well as by changes in the social acceptability of disbehaviour.38
Chauhan (2001) in his book television and social transformation has empirically studied the impact of television on college students with regard to their social life, political attitudes, educational performance and their reactions to the advertisement and entertainment programmes. The study suggested that the majority of the respondents admitted that changes have come in their sleeping timings, study timings and also the visiting and the entertaining the guests. Some political serials and programmes have promoted the feelings of patriotism, the political talk-shows was able to establish rapport with the masses as it was admitted by the respondents. Majority of the respondents liked viewing advertisements. Regarding the projection of women on television screen the students did not like the way in which the women are shown on the screen. Moreover, they had no objection regarding the projection of children on T.V. screen. Most of the students admitted improvement in their examination results. Finally the respondents suggested allotting more time to entertainment programme as compared to other programmes.39
Shanahan and Morgan (1992) conducted a comparative case study of how adolescents use T.V. and how this relates to interactions with their families in five countries, namely Argentina, Taiwan, Korea, China and USA. In the following study the issues addressed including television exposure, family conflict over television and the relationship of T.V. viewing to family communication. The study indicates a strong positive association between the parents in Argentina, Taiwan and USA. Most of the adolescents watch television with their parents and feel closer and more satisfied the amount of time spends together. 40
Kuo-Yi Wu (1990) studies the role and contribution of television in shaping of social perception such as sex roles, crime and violence, inter-personal relationships and ageing in Taiwan. In terms of perception of sex roles, contribution of television viewing is distinctly contingent upon the background and other social conditions. A more liberal stance is related to heavy viewers both Chinese or American programmes among females and those with high parental education. They generally prefer the foreign programme to the indigenous programmes. A consistent and significant relationship is found between weekday viewing and a more mistrustful world view. 41
Kang (1989) studies the measures of the pervasiveness of the cultural outlook in Korean T.V. programming. The study focused on Korean student’s perception about traditional and western values in terms of sex roles, the family system, violence and social deviance. He conducted his study on 1169 Junior High School students in Seoul, Korea. Although the finding are not statistically enormous, they seem to indicate that heavy Korean T.V. viewing is weakly related to traditional sex roles, the liberal attitudes towards dating and marriage and to a distorted social reality on violence and social dominance.42
Kang (1989) in his study indicate that Korean students who watch more AFKN (American Force’s Korean Network) are more likely to take more liberal position on the sex role attitudes. He apprehended that compared to male, females are predisposed to think and behave in certain non-traditional ways such as wearing jeans and willingness to discount Confucianism. The females also felt that they would share dating expanses. 43
Ware and Michael (1994) analysed 17 quantitative studies from 16 publications using the Meta analysis approach. A significant positive association between exposure to entertainment programmes and the dependent variables suggest that programmes imported from U.S have a small but statistically significant impact on the foreign audience. The study revealed that exposure to U.S. entertainment programmes is more likely to increase preference for American products and influence attitudes toward America. The study also says that exposure to U.S. Television programming alone will not automatically generate an adoption of U.S. values. This impact is influenced by both study characteristics and types of dependent measure.44
Sharriffadin (1995) in his study looks at some of the major economic, cultural and social issues faced by the developing countries arising from the new technology. Author concludes in his study that the new communication era should not be perceived on purely technological phenomenon. It ultimate impact on social and cultural, although technological advancement is the key factor. This new era invites a change in social and cultural patterns.45
Goonasekera (1995) conducted a study on 263 viewers of two metropolitan cities revealed that most popular channels were DD, Star Plus, BBC, Zee and sun TV. Overall opinion towards foreign programme was positive. The elements not liked in foreign programmes are sex, vulgarity, violence and crime. But the overall opinion of the viewers was firmly against foreign television programmes. 46
Kya Bobo and Husten (2000) reveals key finding from the large body of literature on socio-cultural mechanisms that encourage tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents and adults. Author’s state that these mechanisms exert similar effects on both alcohol and tobacco use behaviours. Socio-cultural factors that encourage smokers to drink and drinkers to smoke have not received extensive study, but they may account for some of the substantial variations in adult tobacco use rates seen among different levels of alcohol consumption. The authors explains the recent wreaking of association between drinking and smoking that is consistent with changes in societal attitudes toward tobacco and standards of care in alcoholism treatment facilities, the connection may continue to be quite strange among some population.47
Menon and Vohra (2001) conducted a study on the sample consisted of 70 urban middle class (annual income between 4-10 lakh rupees) students in the age range of 18-23 years from colleges in New Delhi affiliated to Delhi University. The upper middle class sample was chosen for their access to television and satellite channels. University students were selected as it was felt that this segment had the independence to watch ‘what they want, and when they want’ as unlike school children, their free time is not rigidly regulated by the school curricula or parental rules regarding ‘what to watch’. Finding indicates the significant gender difference was noticed in the viewership of the sports channel, music channels, English serials, Hindi serials and the family portrayal in the serial they would create (i.e. portraying ‘new trends’, ‘nuclear family’ or a joint family). Further, educational differences between the postgraduate and undergraduate sample were evident in the statistically significant differences in the viewership of Hindi serials and family portrayal in the self-creation section. These results indicate that the hypothesis suggesting that females would favour soap operas while the male sample would favour sports and information programmes.48
Verma and Larson (2002) conducted a study to understand the effects of T.V. on youth. A sample of 100 urban middle class Indian families selected for research. The author found in his study on an average adolescents viewing T.V. about 12 hours per week, 90% of this viewing occurred at home, 73% done with other family members, including 7% with grandparents, uncle or aunts. The study indicates that T.V. viewing for these youth is typically a family activity. The finding indicates that the T.V. viewing is typically a relaxed antidote to the stresses of the day that they share with their families.49
Zia Anjum (2004) conducted a study on Cable Television Watching Habits of the Youth in Pakistan. This study was aimed at to collect precise data to analyze the "opinion" preferences and requirements of the youth in Lahore regarding their cable T.V. watching habits. For this purpose, students of both genders of different colleges and Universities have been contacted so that people belongs to all section of the society can be reached. A sample of 300 respondents in totality selected the result show that young people only acquire entertainment from the cable T.V. They wish to have access to only those selected channels that do not promote immorality and untraditional indecency.50 further, indicates in her study that a large majority (85%) of the college and university students have their own access to cable T.V. A vast majority of the youngsters (62%) spend 3-4 hours daily to watch cable television programmes. The largest portion of the sample under study (39%) only watches cable T.V. for the sake of entertainment, second major reason for which youngster prefer to watch cable T.V. is for Leisure (18%). Majority of youngsters are interested in watching foreign channels instead of Pakistani channels on the cable T.V. 51 ibid
Hemamalini et.al (2010) states that though violent images are portrayal in chutti T.V is no relationship between these images and children violent behaviour. Comparing to the television news channels and other adult focussed other channels mostly in native channels the T.V. so not have any moorings towards Indian culture since they are foreign productions. It is stated by authors that it is very difficult to dissociate violent images from the surroundings violence in which the children are captive. Authors’ state that the programmes that adults watch from in which the children are not spared are more violent images that Chutti T.V. For some children aggression is an expression that gives vent to their emotions. Authors state that children could be aggressive if he or she is hyperactive. This requires a need to channelize the aggression depicted in T.V. images so that it is expressed in a society acceptable manner. Authors explain that children should be discouraged to watch T.V. one hour before they go to bed. 52
Daud et. al (2011) in his study state that television advertisements in general and those involving some celebrities have immense and long lasting impact on youth’s lifestyle, religious values, family bonding and their decision making for buying various items. Authors state that some of the effects are really damaging for our society which are generally based on combined family system, established religions and cultural value and where majority of people cannot afford to purchase the products, which have severe temptation for youth in the race of show power. 53
Ahluwalia and Singh (2011) revealed in his study that T.V. competes with family, school, society and religious institutions to provide role models and information that affect children’s beliefs, values, behaviour, attitude and lifestyle. This study was conducted to make note of T.V. viewing patterns amongst children from middle and upper middle socio-economic strata of the urban society. A sample of 400 children of 8 to 16 years of age, across the region of Punjab was selected. Both the authors found in his study that on an average children watch 2 hours or less T.V. daily and most of them indulge in bedtime T.V. viewing. They watched T.V. primarily for entertainment and for learning. Children’s most preferred programme was children’s show/serials followed by cartoon/animated programmes. 54
End Notes
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