This amendment was during the Cold War, thus it was achieved because people feared that the president would become a dictator like the other communists in other countries that they were fighting. While it is good that a president should not hold so much power over a long period of time, the negative to this is when a president is unable to run for re-election, they would care less about the public’s opinion thus doing whatever they want. There were a few loopholes in this amendment that were never addressed. What if a former president was to be elected as Vice President? Of course, it’s true that if a president was elected multiple times until the president dies, it would be like having a king but with the system of checks and balances. Over time, the re-occurring president would gain so much power over time. That being said, there is numerous controversies about why or why don’t we have a similar amendment or even law for numerous of members of legislators and executives in the United States. Many of them do not face term limits and they can serve as long as they keep winning elections.
The Social Security Act was enacted, revised, and is still current since 1935. It was passed by Congress as part of the New Deal. When President Roosevelt saw that the people that had worked hard to build America from the ground up, and saw them fall into poverty at an old age, he was motivated to stop this. Thus, the Social Security Act (or the SSA) was an attempt to limit the dangers in Modern American life such as old age, poverty, and unemployment. This made President Roosevelt become the first president to advocate federal assistance for the elderly.
The SSA provided economic security that all Americans desperately needed during the post-depression era. At first, the Social Security Act was a work-in-progress as it denied coverage to a number of classes of workers—only covered the skilled class of workers and it failed to set up a national system of unemployment. This Act is still current and said to keep roughly around forty percent of all Americans over the age of sixty five out of poverty—that’s a lot of people that it has impacted! The good thing about this act is that it is a back-up plan for those who fall into debt of poverty, and enables them to survive old age; when they are unable to work. However, this has been seen as a negative too, because far too many people have become reliant on the SSA and now lack the discipline or motivation to save—using and thinking that the SSA is going to save them when they retire. Also, culturally, many countries (such as the Asian countries) rely on their tightly-knit families to help them when they retire, and often live in large family groups. These countries are known to become very family-oriented, where the United States has been losing more and more family values and become more individual-oriented. This is, at least, how some people view the negatives of the SSA. The SSA was also significant because it was the first time that the government had a responsibility for the individual welfare of all Americans.
The Good Neighbor Policy
The Good Neighbor Policy was originally created by President Herbert Hoover, but it was President Franklin Roosevelt that gave a speech about it and gained strong support during his administration, especially during 1933 to 1945. When the United States felt its interests in Latin America were being threatened, or when the U.S. felt that any debts weren’t being repaid etc., the United States would intervene with military force or use threats to make them give in during the late nineteen and early twentieth century. Therefore, this policy was given in order to mend the relations with Latin American countries. The policy made America shift from negative and military enforcement towards a more peaceful tone and still maintain to keep the United States interest in other neighboring countries. Its purpose was also to gain Latin American support and to change their views towards the United States.
At the rise of fascism and military imperialism in other countries, the FDR administration feared that Latin America would follow, thus the United States wanted to gain their support before they did. Some of the Good Neighbor Policies was the Clark Memorandum of 1930. This made the state department retract Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary of 1823 to the Monroe Doctrine—which said that only the United States could collect debts from foreign countries in the Western Hemisphere. However, the Clark Memorandum didn’t negate the right to intervention itself. Another act that was annulled was the Platt Amendment, which allowed the intervention in Cuba in 1933. A year later, the U.S. decided to withdraw its marines from Haiti and Nicaragua. All of this reinforced the idea that the United States would be a good neighbor with Latin American countries, all while reversing the previous counter-productive attitude towards the U.S., maintaining its influence in these countries and ultimately improved relations with the United States. Finally, the Good Neighbor Policy was short-lived when the Cold War began in 1945; the United States started to focus their attention on rebuilding Europe and Japan, and resulted in neglect in Latin American countries.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Hiroshima is best known as the first city to be targeted by a nuclear weapon and Nagasaki the second when the United States Army Air Force dropped an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945 near the end of World War II. Thanks to the Manhattan Project, the development and research of the atomic bomb was a success. The atomic bomb for Hiroshima was known as "Little Boy" was dropped by an American B-29 bomber, and killed nearly eighty thousand people on impact, and is estimated to have a total of deaths ranging from ninety to one hundred and fourth thousand deaths. Almost seventy percent of Hiroshima’s buildings were destroyed and another seven percent of their total buildings were severely damaged. Roughly sixty to eighty thousand people were killed in Nagasaki by the atomic bomb "Fat Man", with both totaling at a total of one hundred fifty to two hundred and forty six people deaths. The death toll was enormous, but its impact was highly effective as Japan surrendered to the Allies—only six days after the bombing of Nagasaki and officially ended World War II on August 15.
There are great controversies regarding the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. If it wasn’t for the bombings, Japan wouldn’t have surrendered at the time, and there would have been more casualties from both the Japanese and the Americans. However, many people, including ex-president Herbert Hoover, believed that Japan would have surrendered when Germany fell, and that the bombings of Japan were unnecessary after all. There is no doubt that the bombings in Japan where citizens resided were inhumane acts, especially since Hiroshima was bombed due to the fact that it hadn’t been bombed before, it was a large city, and it was bombed because the U.S. wanted Japan’s morale destroyed. At the time, the United States reasoned the bombings mainly because it wanted to end World War II, and because the U.S. saw Japan resisting defeat until the very end. But at the end of the day, Japan surrendered after the bombings and the United States let them keep their emperor and helped rebuild Japan after the war. There was also speculation behind the reason the U.S. bombed Japan: some say it was to keep the Soviets from invading and taking over, like they did in Eastern Europe. Finally, it demonstrated that the U.S. was a superpower, and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki introduced the age of nuclear weapons.
The Cold War
The Cold War went on from 1945 to 1991, in which there were extreme political and military tensions between the United States and the rival counterpart Soviet Union. It was nicknamed the Cold War because no real action took place, but not because it wasn’t wanted, but because both sides feared the outcome, as each side was in possession of nuclear weapons. No side wanted to see another Hiroshima or Nagasaki in their home territory. This was a very different war than any others before: since the nuclear age, starting anything big would lead to each other’s destruction and devastation through their bombings; as a result, most of the fighting was indirect. They fought via military coalitions, espionage, appeal to neutral nations, sporting events (Olympics), and technological competitions, such as the major and important event, the Space Race.
The Cold War’s main theme was power, as both sides were trying to out-do one another. Going even further, with the Cold War’s result of advanced technology in ways to overpower an enemy, we have gone deeper and coming up with bio-warfare, which is the use of biological toxins such as diseases and viruses to spread to the enemy to kill them. The Cold War resulted in the forming of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, along with causing events such as the Cuban Missile Crisis (which was the Cold War’s climax, almost starting a World War III if the Russians had not backed down), the Vietnam War, and even the falling of the Berlin Wall.
The World Bank and the IMF
The International Monetary Fund was established along with the World Bank on December 1945 in order to develop and reconstruct countries after the war, especially in Europe. It was to loan out money to countries in order to stabilize them. The organization had roughly around one hundred and eighty members, and when a country is in need of funds, the IMF would loan money in return to have some sort of authority in that country. The IMF’s purpose is to loan out money to prevent a global crisis, and unlike the IMF, the World Bank is to loan out money to countries for specific reasons, such as to fight poverty. Both of the organizations are meant to help, guide and cooperate with other countries. The superpowers of today (USA, UK, Germany, France, and Japan) each regulate these.
There are ups and downs to everything, and this is no exception. The negatives are that there is no public access and it sometimes operates in secrecy and currently there is a $278 billion owed to the World Bank and the IMF, forcing countries to collapse, sell their assets, cut spending and use their natural resources and have called for a revision of the organization saying that "50 years is enough". The historical significance of the IMF is that it warned about the recession of 2008 but was ignored, but since then has grown more powerful, seeing as how it is more often asked to supervise the economies. The World Bank has improved countries and helped them with projects such as providing water and electricity, building schools and medical buildings, and protecting the environment.
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War started on November 1955 and is sometimes said that it hasn’t ended, seeing as how Vietnam never surrender, but is still marked as April 1975 to be the end of the war, and seeing the North Vietnamese as victorious. The U.S. went into war with Vietnam in order to stop communism from taking over, however, the Vietnamese and the Viet Cong (political and army with beliefs of communism and Marxism-Leninism) viewed it as a fight to end France’s colonial grip, and were initially fighting against the French, who were then backed up by the United States, seeing them both as the enemy. The end result cost the death of six hundred to one million total lives lost on all sides, with more than a million and a half wounded.
The Vietnam War changed the roles of women, who were thought to not have a place in the military, but the War changed their traditional roles, boosted morale and resulted in allowing women to enter the armed forces in 1973. The Vietnam War also changed warfare, as it introduced guerrilla warfare and was the first war that the U.S. was involved with and defeated. It was also the first war to be seen by Americans through television.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was born in January 15, 1929 and was assassinated April 4, 1968. He was one of the most influential, most powerful voices in American history. He was most famous for using non-violent resistance to fight for his beliefs and fighting during the civil rights movement. In 1964, he was the youngest person to have ever received the Nobel Peace Prize. His life is so significant that in the United States, his birthday is a national holiday on the third Monday in January. When he was murdered on April 1968, his death caused riots and added an additional forty six deaths.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Roe v. Wade
Essay must be: 2-4 pages, double spaced, 1-1.25" margins
Select two events, trends, and or/concepts and evaluate how modern U.S. history (Reconstruction to the present) has impacted your life or your community’s life. Include specific, political, economic, and socio-cultural examples from the different readings, lectures, and discussions. Underline your thesis statement.