Food safety is the important things of to describe food handling, preparation, and the storage of the food in ways that foodborne illness. Food can be transmitted from a person to a person as well as servers as the growth medium of the bacteria that can cause of the food poisoning. Some things can be contribute to foodborne illness are improper hand washing, cross-contamination, storage of the food, cooking temperature and the contamination of the food by the animals waste. Sometimes food poisoning can cause serious illness and even death. Most of the people assume that food poisoning comes from the restaurants, cafes, and also from the food outlets, but also just according to get ill from the food prepared at home. So, food poisoning can come from the various types of the places. There are ten types to reduce the risk of the food poisoning at home. There are wash hands properly, wash worktops, wash dishcloths, use separate chopping boards, keep raw meat separate, store meat on the bottom shelf, cook meat thoroughly, keeping food cold, cool leftovers quickly, and the last one is respect use by dates.
Importance of food safety
The food safety is the extreme importance of the people health and the only way for to prevent the incoming of the bacteria. If did not follow of the guidelines of the food safety hazards, people can get sick from the eating food that was not handle properly and it can even lead to death. That why food safety is very important for human health as well as all those that are eating the same food. Food safety involves separation of cooked and raw food, keeping food clean cooking thoroughly, keeping the food in the safe temperatures and using safe water and raw materials. Without good hygiene and sanitary condition, germs and diseases would spread quickly.
Ways to prevent from bacteria
There are many important steps to take ensure the food facilities and the product is properly stored. This include the number routines that should be follow to avoid the potentially serves the health hazards. All potentially hazardous, ready to eat food stored in refrigeration should be discarded if not used within seven days of preparation. All of the potentially hazardous, ready to eat food should need to be labeled with the date it should be sold, consumed or discarded. Discard of the any food that has passed its use by the date and produced should not be wash prior to storage. Improper handling of the raw food and meat, poultry, and also the seafood can create the environment for cross-contamination. Cross-contamination is the physical movement or transfer of the harmful bacteria from one person, object or the place to another. Preventing the cross-contamination is a key factor in preventing the foodborne illness. Separate raw meat, poultry, and the seafood from the other food and place these foods in the plastic bags for to prevent the juices from dripping on to the other foods. Raw juices often contain the harmful bacteria. That why pack the raw meat and the seafood properly and stored it in the correct temperature. Harmful bacteria can spread throughout the kitchen and get on to the cutting board, knife and so on. For to prevent this, wash all of the material properly and wash hand after handling raw meat and the food. If possible, use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one use for the raw meat, poultry, seafood and also using a clean plate and then never place cooked food back on the same plate or the cutting board that previously raw food. As a result, bacteria can be spread to eat the food and also other sources of the surfaces throughout the food and the kitchen. So
all of the people need to be take care of the food safety and need to clean properly all of the food and also any place of the kitchen. Keeping uncooked meat, poultry, and the seafood away from ready to eat of the foods like the vegetables, fruits and the cold cuts helps prevent pathogens and the other bacteria from contaminating the ready to eat foods.
Use the proper temperature
The key to safe cooking is the proper internal temperature to kill the organisms that might make sick. Food should be stored in a refrigerator of a cooler. When cooking, thoroughly cook raw meat and the poultry to destroy the bacteria and using the thermometer to measure the internal temperature of the meat can be used to ensure that it is cooked sufficiently to kill the bacteria. Use a thermometer to check temperature. The way for to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is using the food thermometer. Basically, the thermometers are easy to use it for all of the people. The research of the thermometer show that while people are cooking by the color is frequently done and it can be misleading. The correct way to using the right thermometers are provides confidence that the foods are adequately cooked, get the delicious meal, resulting a safe and know the food cook ready or not. So the thermometers are also the best way for to safe the food and gave a delicious food. Cook food thoroughly and check that it is piping hot all the way through. And also make sure that poultry, pork, beef, burgers and sausages are cooked until steaming hot and with no pink meat inside. The other one is don’t eat food that’s past its use-by date label. These are based on the scientific tests that show quickly harmful bugs can develop in the packaged food.
Use safe water and hand washing
The next way is using the safe water system and the proper hand washing dramatically to reduce the risk of the diarrhoeal diseases and the food poisoning. Water helps the human body clean out of the bad stuff and also essential for keeping human health. If people are don’t drink the require amount of the water every day, all of the people body can becomes weak and also easily could attack diseases of the bacteria. So all of the people need to take a lot of water every day for their health and taking a lot of water reduces tiredness and improves the attention in participants. If don’t take unsafe water, people can get dangerous diseases and can occur illness.
The way for to safe the food is washing hands properly every time after visit a toilet, touching animals including pets, after cleaning up rubbish or cleaning a child, before eating, and after coughing or sneezing. Wash the hands thoroughly with soaps and hot water and dry them before handling food, after handling the raw foods including the meat, fish, vegetables, and eggs.
This all types are for to help the human health and the food safety. In order for hands to be clean, all of the people must need to be followed the guidelines of the proper hand washing procedures. If follow this types of washing procedures, can be safe from the bacteria of the diseases and also cannot occur illness. So all of the people must follow the guidelines of the food safety and this all potential hazards are the best way for to prevent food borne illness. So food safety is the important part of the staying healthy. As well as wash dishcloths and the tea towels regularly and let them dry before using again. Dirty damp clothes are the perfect place for to attack the bacteria. So people must follow this kind of procedures and also need to be careful from the incoming of bacteria.
Discuss the concept of HACCP and risk analysis in the context of food safety.
The hazard analysis and critical control point or (HACCP) system applied for the food safety management uses approach of controlling critical points in food handling to prevent food safety problems and allergenic and it is based on identifying significant of the biological, chemical or the physical hazards in production of the processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe, and the design measurement to reduce these risks to a safe level and the hazards can be prevented and eliminated. A hazard is anything which can cause harm to the customers. The HACCP system can be used at all stages of the food chain from the food production and also the preparation processes of including distribution, packaging and so on. The HACCP system must be based on a written plan that is specific to each facility’s menu, equipment, operations, customers, and the processes. HACCP has been increasingly applied to the industries other than food such as like the cosmetic and also pharmaceuticals. The HACCP can be applied throughout the food chain from the primary producer to the final consumer. It is focused only on the health safety issues of the product and not the quality of the product and HACCP principles are the basic of the most food quality and the safety systems. HACCP is designed for use in all segments of the food industry from processing, manufacturing, growing, distribute to preparing food for consumption.
The seven principles of HACCP There are seven principles of the activities that are necessary to establish, implement and maintain a HACCP plan. The HACCP system is based on the seven basic principles outlined by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for foods. The seven principles of HACCP have been universally accepted by the government agencies, and also food industry around the world. The seven principles are
Conduct a hazard analysis
The first principles of the HACCP ( hazard analysis and critical control point ) is conduct a hazard analysis where it identify and assess potential hazard in the food that can be serve, start by taking a look in to how it is been processed in the organization. Plans determine the food safety hazards and also identify the prevention measures the plan can apply to control the identified hazard such as it is prevented, eliminated or reduce to an acceptable level. There are many types of food are processed similarly for examples, preparing and serving the food without cooking (examples, tomatoes, salads, cold sandwiches) and preparing and cooking for same-day service (examples, hamburgers, hot dog, grilled chicken sandwiches) and the last one is preparing, holding, reheating, cooling, serving( chili, soup).
All real or potential hazards that may occur in each ingredient and at each stage of the commodity system should be considered. The food safety hazards for HACCP programs have been classified in to three types of hazards biological, physical and the physical property that can cause a food to be unsafe for the human health risk. The risk may take a value from zero to one depending on the degree of certainty that the hazards will be absent or that it will be present. A hazard analysis must be conducted to understand the relative health risk of the human or the animals posted by the hazard. It is the way for organizing and identifying the available scientific information on the nature and size of the health risk associated with the hazard.
Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs)
A critical control point (CCP) is a step at which control can be applied and it is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or to reduce it to an acceptable level. Examples would be cooking acidification or dying steps in a food processes. Each step in the commodity of the processes, within the scope of the HACCP study, should not be taken in turn and the relevance of each identified hazard should be considered. If a step is identified where a food safety hazard exits, but no adequate control measures can be put in place either at this step, then the product is unsafe for the human consumption. Production should cease until the control measures are available and a CCP can be introduced.
Establish Critical Limits
All of the critical control points (CCPs) must have the preventive measures which are measurable and the critical limits are the operational boundaries of the CCPs which control the food safety hazards. The criteria for the critical limits are determined ahead of the time in the consultation with competent authorities. If the critical limit criteria are not met, the process is the out of control and then the food safety hazards are not being prevent, eliminated, or reduced to the acceptable levels. Criteria often used including the measurements of the temperature, time, moisture level, water activity, pH and the other sensory parameters such as like visual appearance and texture.
Establish monitoring Procedures
Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or the observation of CCPs relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of the control at the CCPs. Monitoring should ideally provide this information in time to make the adjustments to ensure the control of the processes to prevent the critical limits. The process adjustments should be made when monitoring results indicate a trend towards the loss of control at CCPs. The monitoring interval must be adequate to ensure reliable control of the process. Monitoring can be carried out by the observation or by the measurement, visual observation is based but give rapid results and can therefore be acted upon quickly. Most of the common measurements are the temperature, time, and moisture content.
Identify Corrective Actions
Corrective actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought back under control and also they must need to be included appropriate disposition of any affected product and for the correction of the process. The HACCP is intended to prevent the product and process deviations. However, a cooking step must result in a product center temperature with the correct action should require a second pass through the cooking step with an increase in the temperature of the cooker. The corrective action should take in to account the worst case scenario but must also be based on the assessment of the hazards, risk and on the use of the final product.
Establish verification procedures
The sixth principle in HACCP is established procedures for the verification. Verification and auditing methods, the procedures and tests, can be used to determine if HACCP system is working correctly. The scientific or the technical validity of the hazard analysis and the CCPs should be documented. The frequency of the verification should be sufficient to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively and efficiently. The examples of the verification including the review of the HACCP system and its records, review of deviations and product disposition, and confirming that CCPs are kept under control. So verification has several steps and HACCP offers continuous and systematic approaches to assure food safety.
Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and Documentation
Efficient and accurate record keeping is an essential to the application of the HACCP system process. The HACCP procedures should be documented and the documentation and the record keeping should be appropriate to the nature and the size of the operation. The examples of the documentation are hazard analysis, CCP determination and the critical limit determination. The examples of the record keeping are CCP monitoring activities, modification of the HACCP system, and the deviations and associated corrective actions.
So these seven principles of HACCP system can be applied throughout the food chain from the primary production to the final consumption and its implementation should be guide by the scientific evidence of the risk of human health. The applications of HACCP systems can be aid inspection by promote international trade of increasing confidence in food safety. So the HACCP system has been successfully applied in the food industry and the system fits in well with the modern quality and the management techniques.