Answer Question 1
Conclusion Question 1
Introduction Question 2
Answer Question 2
Conclusion Question 2
As a food safety expert, what considerations would you advocate to ensure a "food-safe" facility? Explain briefly.
Discuss a concept of HACCP and risk analysis in the context of food safety.
1.0 Introduction question 1
Food is one of the main sources of life. It originates mostly from plants and animals which consist of essential body nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamin and minerals. It is ingested by living things to produce energy. Eating food is no longer just to satisfy hunger but is also valued for tastes and enjoyment. We are often tempted to eat tasty food and eat more than what we should. In addition to that, food safety is very important because customers believe that the food they buy would be safe and the food quality could be expected. Not only that, customers also expect to provide with more information such as compositions of food product, the nutrition label that label on the food products is not false misleading. Besides that, nowadays human eating habits have already changed and the major health is come from the food borne disease. By eating unsafe food will cause the result to easily get ill and some other kind of disease. Food safety is systematic methods have to be followed in every food industry or restaurant. Therefore, the employee or staffs in the organizations have to apply to this food safety act 1990 to ensure that they know the food safety systematic method to provide a safe and healthy food for the customers.
2.0 Answer question 1
Food safety act is to use in various ways and strategies to make sure that all type of foods are stored, prepared properly. Usually this will apply in every food and beverages industry such as restaurant, food processing company, lodging property and all kind of industry that are providing foods and beverages. Food safety Act have to be procedure because to ensure that the food and beverages that customers purchase are safe, fresh, and healthy. By following the methods or steps of food safety is to prevent food contamination. There are steps to be concerned such as menu planning, purchasing, receiving, storing, preparing, holding and serving, cooking, and reheating.
2.1 Menu planning
Menu planning is one of the major things in a food and beverages industry such as restaurant. Menu planning is the choice of a menu in a restaurant. Menus are divide to two types such as a la carte and table d’hôte. A la carte menu is a variety choices menu that each dish priced individually. Table d’hôte menu is a menu that combines few courses such as appetizer, soup of the day, main course, and lastly is the dessert. This menu is charged at the fixed priced and provides all this kind courses. It also known as set menus. Besides that, menus have to be creative design, good looking, and the descriptions are not complicated to understand by the customers. In addition to that, the dish photo must achieve the same quality so that the customers are willing to pay for the food. Besides that, selling price have to be reasonable and of course must sustain the cash flow of the restaurant and profits. By doing this menu planning, it would easily organise and manage in a restaurant.
This is the first stage to be concern in the restaurant when purchasing food items and ingredients. Usually at this stage have to be very alert when purchasing because at the end the items cannot be used or the items are spoilt. Hazards at this stage are that the food are purchase at the unsafe source, contains harmful substances and contaminated with bacteria. These hazards will course food poisoning, and diarrhoea. To control this hazards at this purchasing stage the purchaser have to purchase the items from the reputable suppliers. Authority to purchase restricted to those with knowledge of quality. In addition to that, to monitor this procedure purchaser has to note up the purchase specifications, check the suppliers on site, and keep records of the supplier performance. This may help to prevent any hazards that causes in this stage and in order to get the good items for the restaurant.
At this stage, the delivery items arrived and received by the purchaser. Receiving means checking the items or raw material delivered from the supplier are in good condition, correct item, specified quantity, the item quality, and the food safety criteria. Hazards at this stage are damaged packaging, food contamination, growth of food poisoning bacteria during delivery. To control and prevent this to happen, the supplier has to ensure that the delivery vehicles are clean and hygienic. Besides that, the temperature for the items must be consistent because the raw material will contaminate if it’s in the not suitable temperature. In addition to that, such as the caned ingredient has the expiry date to let the purchaser use best before. Receiver has to double check the raw material such as the smell the appearance. If there are any inconvenience causes, receiver has the rights to inform the supplier and reject the items and replace a new one.
Storing is an important task to follow because different item has to store at the different place. Storing is divided to three types such as frozen storage, chilled storage, and dry storage. The frozen storage is usually store items such as meat. Hazards that will occurs in frozen storage is that the temperature variation leads to the bacteria growth, product kept beyond best-before date, and premature thawing with juices/blood from one product contaminating another. To control this critical point, the store keeper has to ensure and maintain the freezer best temperatures that do not let the bacteria growth. Besides that, store keeper has to check every food label best-before date of the product. In addition, the freezer has equipment service regularly in order to reduce all this hazards. Store keeper has to check the temperature by monitoring temperature equipment, and every equipment services have to be noted in to a log book. Chilled storage is stored the cooked raw material, vegetables, and any others thing. Hazards may occur is the cross-contamination from raw to cooked foods, products kept beyond safe life, and the temperature variation. In order to overcome these hazards, maintain a safer chilled temperature, separate the raw and cooked, and have equipment service regularly. Lastly is the dry storage that includes dried food, seasoning, fruit, and many more. Hazards occur is that the item attack by pests or the vermin. In dry storage, every items have to place separately and cleaning the place with the suitable cleaning agents. The store keeper has to check very regularly in order to prevent food contamination.
At this stage, there are many things to concern. The staffs that are doing the preparation have to be good in personal hygiene. This is one of the hazards may occurs. Besides that, cross-contamination from raw to cooked food so that the bacteria has time to grow. The cleaning agents and the food are not well organise or the equipment are contaminated. To control this kind of hazards, equipment has to be separated for raw and cooked food. In addition, the rules of personal hygiene have to be followed by the staffs. The staffs have to clean the protective clothing daily. In addition to that, the procedures of washing the ingredients such as fruits and vegetables have to be hygienic. To monitor these procedures, a supervisor has to spot check regularly of cleaning, working procedures, personal hygiene, wearing of jewellery and the protective cloths.
2.6 Holding and serving
Holding is a critical point that maintaining proper temperatures can help to ensure that a food is safe to eat. The staff must know the suitable temperatures for holding food, monitoring the holding food, and records temperature of the holding food. Holding food could cause the bacteria growth and produce poisons. Take at least two internal temperatures from each batch of food during holding. Serving can known as service. While serving the food also may cause the cross-contamination bacteria growth because maybe the foods is cold or over cooked. The ready to eat foods have to separate with the uncooked food to avoid contamination. In addition to that, use different utensils to separate the ready to eat food and the uncooked food. Depends on what food to serve, for example the food has to be served cold then served it cold and fresh, if the food has to be served hot then the food has to put in a room temperature to hot holding the dish.
The hazards may occur in cooking is poisoning bacteria and bacteria spores survive. To control these hazards, the chef has to maintain the safe cooking time and temperature established. Besides that, food cannot be over cooked or not cooked. At this point, the chef has to maintain the temperature of cooking certain foods to ensure that the foods are in good condition and fresh. Some of the restaurant do records the temperature variation in order to maintain the temperature for cooking the food and not over cooked. But if the food is not well cooked usually will continue cooking until thoroughly cooked. To monitor this control point, the supervisor or the chef has to observe the temperature at centre of food checked.
Food that need to reheat has to control the temperature above 75°C for at least 30 seconds to avoid bacteria survive. Reheating stage is for the cooked food or already prepares food in the restaurant but usually restaurant foods are freshly cooked. If there are already prepared food, reheating process has to be concern because if the food are not cooked in the proper temperature will cause survival of bacteria and also the food cannot be over cooked. To ensure that the temperature is suitable, the supervisor has to check the temperature and the time set.
In conclusion, food safety act is an important task to follow in a food and beverage industry such as restaurant. Nowadays, customers are very concern about the food safety because there are many diseases may cause in food contamination. By following this food safety act procedures the restaurant would be more systematic in terms of buying good condition products, good personal hygiene, good preparation overall of the restaurant. This food safety may apply on every food and beverages industry. Furthermore, the owner of the food and beverage industry has to be very alert to this food safety act in order to sustain and provides good services for the guest.
1.0 Introduction question 2
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point which means HACCP system is a process control system that identifies where food safety hazards may occur in a food production process and puts into place stringent controls to prevent the hazards from occurring. It is a properly designed and monitored system that ensures the products we serve and the preparation, storage and holding of those products is done in the safest possible way. HACCP are usually used to identify potential safety food hazards in the food industry. Therefore, it can be taken the critical action to reduce the risk of harm. This system is aimed to avoid of contaminations. To depend on food inspectors to find out the food safety issues, HACCP is tool for them to ensure that the product from the manufacturer is safe to consume. Furthermore, it also provides defence for the food producer company against the complaint and any other legal actions. Besides that, SOP which means Standard Operation Procedure, it is a helpful tool in terms of safety and efficiency organizations. SOP lets an organization to manage the documents such as plans, compliance, policies, and regulations. Effectiveness of SOP is that to communicate with who should go through the tasks, what materials are considered, where the duty should take place, when the mission should be performed, and how the person should implement the tasks.
2.0 Answer question 2
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a tool that is very useful in the avoiding or preventing of food safety hazards. Food safety is very important nowadays in every country. This is because people now are very concern in consuming a safe food. HACCP is a tool that is a various component food safety system. Besides that, HACCP enables organization to demonstrate the commitment to food safety and customer satisfaction, and also further improvement. Not only that, HACCP is not an individual programme but it is a worldwide principle emphasize for the requirements for effective control in food safety. HACCP also undertaking the organizations concentrate on the hazards that influence food safety and hygiene. HACCP are consists of 7 principle steps which are Identify Hazards, Identify Critical Control Points, Establish Critical Limits, Establish Monitoring Procedures, Establish Corrective Actions, Establish Verification Procedures, Establish Record Keeping for make sure that the HACCP system is working as intended.
2.1 Identify Hazards
The first principle of the HACCP is to identify hazards. The team have identified the hazards and what causes the hazards. There are three types of hazards that are biological hazards, physical hazards, and chemical hazards that will lead to food borne or unsafe food. Biological hazards are usually the living organisms’ growth in the food. The living organism such as bacteria is easily growth in food or any other raw materials if the food or material are not stored well or well cooked. Besides that, physical hazard are the thing that will causes illness to the person who purchase the unsafe food. Chemical hazards will be the substances that added during the food process. If the chemical is easily causes food contamination, should not put a lot or it has to controlled the critical limit.
2.2 Identify Critical Control Points
This is the second step in the HACCP process. Critical control point consists of many things such as preventing the hazards, eliminate the hazards, or lower to acceptable needs. The most common control point in food safety is that to prevent every steps in doing a food like where you purchase item, how to stored the raw materials, preparation of the food, and how to manage those leftovers. In every step must have monitoring procedures and noted the hazards and prevent it.
2.3 Establish Critical Limits
Critical limit are the boundaries of critical control point. This step is to have critical limit at each measure in the critical control point. Critical limit is maximum and minimum level to control the hazards and prevent and eliminate the hazards. It wills usually the temperature, time, and the product best before date. This is very important because this may cause the consumer consume the unsafe food.
2.4 Establish Monitoring Procedures
This is the fourth step of HACCP principle. These steps have to consider with the person in charge or the supervisors. Monitoring procedures is to monitor every steps in food safety act when comes to purchase, stored, preparations, cooking, and others. Every step has to be monitor and make a record for future use or overcome the same problem occurs. Besides that, supervisors of the employee have to spot check the employee personal hygiene.
2.5 Establish Corrective Actions
A corrective action which means the monitoring procedures in critical limit is to prevent thing and correct thing before it happens. Corrective action includes the thing causes has prevented or has eliminated. These will be done if the critical limit is not met. This may apply on every situation in food safety and the employee personal hygiene. The responsibility of the employee is to provide a safe food to be consumed.
2.6 Establish Verification Procedures
Verification procedures are considered with the person who in charge and how often verification will take place. There are three types of verification such as validation, ongoing verification, and reassessment. The HACCP has to be tested and show prevention and control the identified hazards. Besides that, HACCP has to apply day by day basis work. Reviewing the HACCP is to see the workers are working follow the HACCP plan.
2.7 Establish Record Keeping
Records must be properly noted and kept for years. Effective records document could lead to improvement and future use. For instance, a machine or equipment has to be service very regularly because it may cause food borne. When setting up these records the team has to think who will be in charge for this. Furthermore, if records have made but no one cares still is a problem. Therefore, records keeping are required features of HACCP system and planned everything well.
2.8 Risk Analysis
The principles for risk analysis for food safety also an important task to be apply. In risk analysis consist of risk assessment, risk management, risk communication. In these three risks there are consist difference detail and difference way to be used. In risk assessment there are consist four steps we should incorporate, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Other than this, risk management is consists of policy which means is how we handle the come out procedure. The decision we made should be based on the risk assessment and also need to assessed risk carefully. It is because of some factor can affect on health protection of consumer and can cause a lot of problem. Lastly is risk communication which means is attention on info of sharing and giving the opinion. Risk communication should be included promote awareness and understanding of the specific issues when we consideration a thing during the risk analysis. Promote consistency and transparency in formulating risk management recommendation. Provide a sound basis for understanding the risk management decisions proposed. Improve the overall effectiveness of the risk analysis. Strengthen the working relationships among participants. Understanding the process so that have trust and confident in the safety of the food supply. Promote the food to those interested company or a shopping complex. Exchange information in relation to the concern of interested company or shopping complex about the risk associated with food and drink. Respect the legitimate concern to preserve confidentially where applicable.
In conclusion, HACCP system is very useful tool in food organizations. HACCP is a system focus on thing involved with food products details of the food process and also identifies the awareness of safety problem. Not only that, it requires commitment of the management, the employees in the organisation, and further monitoring for all kind of food process. Besides that, HACCP is a priority to control the hazards in food process. By controlling the food production to cause hazards, HACCP system has to be followed in order to provide safe food for the consumer. Every food industry should have this system to analyze the hazards and to overcome the hazards and provide safe food for consumer so that consumer have confident to consume.