A characteristics management analysis of leadership to successful project delivery
A). Introduction to the research area
Many projects are underway and the organizations need to understand the management skills as well as the leadership styles that are applied and the effects they have on the projects. The person managing a project has to be aware of their leadership style and what they are capable of achieving. Several people disagree with this and this is regardless of their inability to run projects with any existing style of leadership. On the other hand, it is possible to measure the impact of such leadership on the success directly.
However, this relies on the emotional intelligence of the manager depending on four major components. This is defined to be how they feel and if they are aware of the performance of the project after it is completed and whether they were satisfied with the outcomes and the goals attained. This is because the way they feel about it affects how that particular project is assessed and evaluated. The satisfaction of the stakeholders also determines how the success is determined (Zaccaro, Gulick & Khare, 2008).
Project management skills are required to run any given project and the success of the project depends on the leadership styles and the perception of that particular leader. There are particular styles that are adopted by the managers of certain projects even after being newly appointed (Kenny & Zaccaro, 1983). This is so that they can be able to attain some of the set goals. There are different styles of leadership that are mainly studied by many scholars and they accurately define the various styles that are applied and their likely effects (Foti & Hauenstein, 2007).
On the other hand, the managers have to work together with the rest of the employee in the project to make sure a team based approach is applied hence attaining the goals easily. This is because no one can get to the highest point by themselves. One has to rely on another person to do what they cannot do perfectly (Fiedler, 2002).
Problems to be addressed
The first problem is that a project is likely to fail without proper leadership skills and secondly, a project manager has no impact to the project outcome whether leadership styles are applied or not.
Benefits to the industry and the society
It is necessary for the organizations that are involved in the project running to understand the various leadership styles and how they are likely to affect the outcome of the project at hand (Zaccaro, 2007). This will enable them to seek good managers with some leadership skills so that the project can meet their intended objectives. The society will then benefit from the project as all the projects are aimed at improving the life or day to day work for the people in a given community.
The aims of the study are:
Determining if there exists a competent leadership style as a factor that leads to success of a project.
Determining the possibility of different leadership styles being applied in different projects.
It is argued that competent leadership styles and styles have no great impact on the project and its success (Kickul & Neuman, 2000). There is hardly a difference to the result of the project when different styles are applied on the same project, despite it being hard to measure this directly.
The two objectives will have to be met by the end of the research. The determining of the applicability of leadership styles and how it affects the outcome of the project is one of the objectives and the measurements have to be done accurately. It is necessary to keep in mind that objectivity is not easy to apply here and only subjective results are likely to be used.
Scope of the project
This project is going to focus on the leadership skills and how they are related to the management in carrying out an activity in any given project. There are various leadership skills that vary depending on the employee and those involved in the running of a project. It is therefore important for any given organization to decide the type of leadership they want to apply (Partington, 2003).
Key deliverables of the project
Leadership: this is the ability of the manager of a project to lead the team into working towards certain goals in a given period of time. The leader is expected to have a strategy of achieving the goals which is then translated into success. A leader has to have emotional and managerial functions to achieve the set goals.
Project success factors: these are factors that affect the outcome of the project at hand.
There are several challenges that should be expected, the objectives have to be met but this is likely to be a problem since time is one of the limitation for the researchers. The success of the project is also subjective and the emotional intelligence of the manager is largely relied on (Lord, De Vader & Alliger, 2000). This makes it hard to determine the success of one project and also base it in another. This means that the success of one project is not equal to the success of another.
The meeting planned with the partners within 3 weeks
The stakeholders and other people involved in the project will be communicated to so that they can have a meeting to know how to go about the project (Arvey, Ratundo, Johnson Zhang & McGue, 2006).
Review of the security system of data taking about 4 weeks
The data that is collected will have to be protected from being tampered with by unauthorized persons so that accurate results can be analyzed.
Drafting of the key elements of the project in 3 weeks
The main elements need to be assessed and studied appropriately to get good results.
Testing of the elements of the project in 3 weeks
The main elements will require to be tested to determine their appropriateness in the study to be carried out.
Analyzing test results and report in 3 weeks.
Analyzing of the data is necessary so that a report will be written and disseminated.
The bar char is a Gantt chart and it illustrates how the meeting with the partners takes place in and this is planned to take place in three weeks. At the same time, the researchers have to ensure that the security system is strong to prevent easy access to the data without authorization. In the 5th week, the main elements are drafted and tested before later the results are analyzed and reported.
- meeting to be planned with the partners
review data security system and make a strong protection regime
draft the main elements
test the main elements
Analyzing the results and creating a report
Ten references that are of direct relevance to the project, contribution to the knowledge and shortcomings.
Baker, B.N. Murphey, P.C. and Fisher, D. 2000, Factors affecting project success. In D.I Cleland & W.R. King (Eds). Project management Handbook (2nd Ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
These authors created a list that was used success factors. Despite them identifying factors leading to project success, they do not quote a project manager in any of them. This makes it hard to identify project success factors being correlated to the manager.
Bass B. M., 2000, From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision, Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.
There was a multifactor leadership questionnaire that was developed to test various types of leadership styles namely; transformational, transactional and laissez-faire. This is one of the widely applied questionnaires, despite it not being able to illustrate the issue of competence when leading running of any given project. The items that are used to assess the leadership are realism, understanding need for change, commitment to the organization and change as well as job satisfaction.
Boyatsis, R.E. 2000, the competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York: Wiley.
Following the definition used for competence, he stated that the competence of the manager depends on the personality as well as the leadership style. However, these are not the only attributes that makes one to be competent enough to lead to the success of the project. There are other dimensions to a leader that leads to the manager being competent and one factor cannot be used alone, as it has to rely on the other factors and attributes.
Crawford, L.H. 2003, Assessing and developing the project management competence of individuals. In J. R. Turner (Ed.). People in project management, Aldershot, UK: Gower.
This is a document that is used to show how the project manager and his competence correlate to the success of the project. However, the success attained by the project did not show that it was based on the assessment of the performance of the project. It was based on the assessment by the supervisor making it subjective and not objective. It was also an overall assessment and not based on any specific project.
Dulewicz, V and Higgs, M.J., 2000, Emotional Intelligence: A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(4), 341-368.
It is a document that illustrates the four types of competence determining the leadership performance. These are the cognitive, behavioral, motivational and emotional. On the other hand, it does not explain other types of competences apart from the emotional, intellectual and managerial skills.
House R.J. 2000, A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness, Administrative Science Quarterly, September. 321-338.
The contingency theory of leadership proves that it is the most popular since it is goal driven. The leader has to help his team of employees to attain the set goals as well as help them in the process of achieving them. It is stated that it shows that a leadership style can be applied in all situations. However, it does not prove that competent leadership is required for the project to be successful.
Frame, J.D. 2000, managing projects in organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This is an author that used the critical thinking of Turner and stated that the different styles have to be applied in different stages of the project. This is stated to depend on how much one is involved in the team work. However, it is necessary to note that a manager has to be committed in all stages of the project.
Hartman, F. and Ashrafi, R. A., 2002. Project management in the information systems and information technologies industries. Project management Journal, 33(3), 5-15.
These are another set of authors that have developed a list of success factors. These factors have been linked to the project management and its success. On the other hand, this is a list that is based on subjective assessment and not objective and therefore there are other factors that might have not been considered. The authors also do not use the project manager to show that they are the ones who will apply their leadership in applying of the factors.
Keegan, A.E. and Den Hartog, D.N. 2004. Transformational leadership in a project-based environment: A comparative study of the leadership styles of project managers and line managers. International Journal of Project management, 22(8), 609-618.
It is a document that predicts that the transactional style of leadership should be used less than the transformational style since the latter is stated to be the better project management style. However, there is no link that is significant enough to make the statement proven correct. The correlation of the style cannot be applied to the running of a project making it hard to be followed through.
Makilouko, M. 2004, Coping with multi-cultural projects: The leadership style of Finnish project managers, International Journal of Project Management, 22(5), 387-396.
He is another author that illustrated that the managers are expected to be people focused and the use the project as a way of focusing and improving the people and the kind of lives they lead as well as that of others that surround them. However, for the project to be successful, it is useful that the manager focus on the goals as well so that they can have good plans on how to work into achieving them as a group and how to include the people that will be affected by the project.
Morris, P.W.G. and Hough, G. 2000. The anatomy of major projects: A study of the reality of project management. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
There were success factors that were identified by the two authors as well. These success factors were created from a study that was carried out in the United Kingdom. However, these success factors have been recast proving it hard to know which particular ones are already proven. This is from other authors, an instance being Turner (2000).
Thamhain, H. 2004. Linkages of project environment to performance: Lessons for team leadership. International Journal of Project Management, 22(7)533-544.
He is another author that uses the published document to illustrate that the environment in which the rest of the employees work on has a great impact to the outcome of the project. Therefore, the manager has to perform a task in making sure that the environment is suitable enough to fuse the team into one. This means that the team has to gain some of the personalities to be able to understand each other and work together to attain the set goals.
Turner, J.R. 1999. The handbook of project-based management: Improving the process of achieving strategic objectives, London: McGraw-Hill.
This is an author among several that claimed that the leadership styles need to be used for different projects. This is because it is stated that all the leaders have to adopt a common style in leading the people that work towards the achievement of the objectives set in a project.
The research methodologies applied are two. These are the quantitative and qualitative methodologies since they are able to prove certain points beyond doubts as well as answer the problems that are to be focused on in this research. The quantitative study is one that will use the questionnaires and interviews to get data that will then be assessed accordingly and the results put in place. This makes it objectives and more accurate that the qualitative method (Mann, 2001). Secondly, there is the qualitative method involves subjective assessment where the researchers get to observe and record events that lead to a certain outcome in a project that has been carried out (Stogdill, 2001).
The research is explanatory as it is necessary for the project organization to understand how the project success if correlated with the leader managing it. This is also because the leader being chosen has to have the qualities that will influence the end result of the project. The flexible design is used in developing the ideas as this design allows for any other input that might be brought forward. The approach best applied in this research is case study as it gives illustrations of the studies that have been conducted and the results that were attained, and how it can relate to the one at hand (Smith, J.A., & Foti, R.J. (2000). The methods that can be used in the data collection are by applying questionnaires, performing interviews and observing various organizations (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002).This is because these data collection methods present the researchers with a better insight as they attempt to meet the stated objectives.
It is very vital to choose a good research methodology since its applicability has to give accurate and sensible results that will make the study reliable and viable. It should be able to give the same results if done by another set of researchers. This makes the results accurate and the research trustworthy. It also means that the study has met the objectives and answered the questions as well as bridged the recognized gap. it encourages further research to seek knowledge on the other gaps created by this study or the unanswered questions that develop (Chemers, 2000). It is a great research that will benefit the society in improving the way projects are carried out and how the leaders are chosen during recruitment. The project organizations also have to be careful on the employees that it seeks since they have to work together to attain the set standards. It is one of the important factors that usually affect the outcome of any given project. The environment has to be conducive for the workers to be highly productive.